Rabu, 09 April 2008

The Jurassic Garden
The Jurassic Garden
Brandy Cowley*
Sunday, January 19, 2003
Florida has the ideal climate for the Jurassic Park garden;
hot, humid and swampy. There is something fascinating
about the plants that existed in the era when dinosaurs
roamed the earth. The great lizards have long since
passed, but an amazing number of the plants that they
grazed upon, or hunted among, are still flourishing today.
In fact, many plants that grow in our area are identical to
fossil plants from millions of years ago.
The first land plants were mosses, rootless airplants like
our familiar Spanish moss (Tillandsia usneoides), which
appeared over 430 million years ago. Among the oldest
survivors of this group is the Whisk Fern (Psilotum
nudum). This lovely moss looks like a sea-fan on a coral
reef.
The next on the scene were the club-mosses. Modern examples that do well here include peacock moss
(Selaginella uncinata), and arborvitae fern (Selaginella ledidophylla).
Around 400 million years ago, the Horsetails (Equisetum spp.) appeared. The horsetails beautifully jointed,
reed-like habit is best suited for container culture in small ponds and water features.
Ferns dominated the landscape beginning about 350 million years ago. Some of the best of this widely diverse
group for the modern Jurassic garden include maidenhair (Adiantum capillus-veneris), ladyfern (Anthyrium
filix-femina), and autumn fern (Dryopteris erythrosora). The Australian tree-fern (Cyathea cooperii) closely
resembles the majestic ferns of this era. It does well in our gardens, with some winter protection.
Just over 200 million years ago the actual Jurassic period began. This was also the era when true seed-bearing
plants, the conifers and their kin, came to prominence. Examples of this group that exist today include
gopherwood or torreya pine (Torreya spp.), still found in pockets along the Apalachicola Bluffs area, and bald
cypress (Taxodium distichum) a prominent species in area wetlands. The dawn redwood (Metasequoia
glyptostroboides) was once thought to be extinct, and was known only from the fossil record. Just after World
War II, a stand was discovered in western China, propagated, and the dawn redwood has become a favored
tree throughout the temperate regions.
Two of the most interesting of the early seed plants that still exist in our area are the monkey-puzzle tree
(Araucara araucana), with its bizarrely patterned habit and stiff spiky leaves, and the ginko (Ginko biloba),
which has unique fan-shaped leaves and fantastic golden fall color. Cycads are another of the relics of this
period. Sago palm (Cycas revoluta ) is widely used in our area. Other species from this group that will grow
well here are dioon (Dioon edule), which looks much like sago only with silvery foliage, and coontie (Zamia
pumila), a low growing native of the Panhandle.
Page 1
The Jurassic Garden
The final stage of the dinosaur period saw the rise of flowering
plants. These plants became the extremely diverse group that
dominates the landscape today. Among the oldest flowering plants
are magnolias, laurels, barberry, and palms. Outstanding specimens
from this group that you can add to your dinosaur garden include
Ashe magnolia (Magnolia ashii) and big-leaf magnolia (Magnolia
macrophylla). An interesting laurel is the culinary bayleaf (Laurus
nobilis). Cold hardy palms that are well suited to North Florida
include pindo palm (Butia capitata), needle palm (Rhapidophyllum
hystrix), and windmill palm (Trachycarpus fortuneii).
So plant your very own Jurassic Park, and just be glad that the
biggest herbivore we have to deal with in our gardens is an
occasional deer. Can you imagine having dinosaurs grazing in your
yard?
*Brandy Cowley-Gilbert and her husband Ted own Just Fruits and Exotics
Nursery in Medart and are members of the University of Florida IFAS Extension
Advisory Committee for Leon County.
Photos: Coontie by Mark Shelby, UF-IFAS Extension Bigleaf magnolia by
Ashland High School Horticulture Dept, Ashland Ohio.
[Back]
Page 2
Keputusan Presiden No. 32 Tahun 1990
Tentang : Pengelolaan Kawasan Lindung
Oleh : PRESIDEN REPUBLIK INDONESIA
Nomor : 32 TAHUN 1990 (32/1990)
Tanggal : 25 JULI 1990 (JAKARTA)
DENGAN RAHMAT TUHAN YANG MAHA ESA
Presiden Republik Indonesia,
Menimbang:
a. bahwa ruang selain merupakan sumber alam yang penting artinya
bagi kehidupan dan perencanaan serta pelaksanaan pembangunan
yang berkelanjutan juga mengandung fungsi pelestarian lingkungan
hidup yang mencakup sumber alam, sumber daya buatan serta nilai
sejarah dan budaya bangsa, yang memerlukan pengaturan bagi
pengelolaan dan perlindungannya;
b. bahwa dengan semakin terbatasnya ruang, maka untuk menjamin
terselenggaranya kehidupan dan pembangunan yang berkelanjutan
dan terpeliharanya fungsi pelestarian, upaya pengaturan dan
perlindungan diatas perlu dituangkan dalam kebijaksanaan
pembangunan pola tata ruang;
c. bahwa dalam rangka kebijaksanaanpembangunan pola tata ruang
tersebut perlu ditetapkan adanya kawasan lindung dan pedoman
pengelolaan kawasan lindung yang memberi arahan bagi badan hukum
dan perseorangan dalam merencanakan dan melaksanakan program
pembangunan;
Mengingat:
1. Pasal 4 ayat (1) dan pasal 33 ayat (3) Undang-undang Dasar 1945;
2. Monumenten Ordonantie Tahun 1931 (Staatsblad Tahun 1931 Nomor
238);
3. Undang-undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1950 tentang peraturan Pokok-pokok
Agraria (Lembaran Negara Tahun 1960 Nomor 104, Tambahan
Lembaran Negara Nomor 2043);
4. Undang-undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1967 tentang Ketentuan-ketentuan
Pokok Kehutanan (Lembaran Negara Tahun 1967 Nomor 8, Tambahan
Lembaran Negara Nomor 2823);
5. Undang-undang Nomor 11 Tahun 1967 tentang Ketentuan-ketentuan
Pokok Pertambangan (Lembaran Negara Tahun 1967 Nomor 22,
Tambahan Lembaran Negara Nomor 2831);
6. Undang-undang Nomor 5 Tahun 1974 tentang Ketentuan-ketentuan
Pokok-pokok Pemerintahan di Daerah )Lembaran Negara Tahun 1974
Nomor 38, Tambahan Lembaran Negara Nomor 3037);
7. Undang-undang Nomor 11 Tahun 1974 Tentang Ketentuan-ketentuan
Pokok Pengairan (Lembaran Negara Tahun 1974 Nomor 65, Tambahan
Lembaran Negara Nomor 3046);
8. Undang-undang Nomor 4 Tahun 1982 tentang Ketentuan-ketentuan
Pokok Pengelolaan Lingkungan Hidup (Lembaran Negara Tahun 1982
Nomor 12, Tambahan Lembaran Negara Nomor 3215);
9. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 28 Tahun 1985 tentang Perlindungan
Hutan (Lembaran Negara Tahun 1985 Nomor 39, Tambahan Lembaran
Negara Nomor 3294);
10. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 29 Tahun 1986 tentang Analisis
Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (Lembaran Negara Tahun 1986 Nomor
42, Tambahan Lembaran Negara Nomor 3338)
11. Keputusan Presiden Nomor 57 tahun 1989 tentang Tim Koordinasi
Pengelolaan Tata Ruang Nasional;
MEMUTUSKAN:
Menetapkan: KEPUTUSAN PRESIDEN REPUBLIK INDONESIA TENTANG
PENGELOLAAN KAWASAN LINDUNG.
BAB I
KETENTUAN UMUM
Pasal 1
Dalam Keputusan Presiden ini yang dimaksud dengan:
1. Kawasan Lindung adalah kawasan yang ditetapkan dengan fungsi
utama melindungi kelestarian Lingkungan Hidup yang mencakup
sumber alam, sumber daya buatan dan nilai sejarah serta budaya
bangsa guna kepentingan Pembangunan berkelanjutan.
2. Pengelolaan kawasan lindung adalah upaya penetapan, pelestarian dan
pengendalian pemanfaatan kawasan lindung.
3. Kawasan Hutan Lindung adalah kawasan hutan yang memiliki sifat
khas yang mampu memberikan lindungan kepada kawasan sekitar
maupun bawahannya sebagai pengatur tata air, pencegah banjir dan
erosi serta memelihara kesuburan tanah.
4. Kawasan Bergambut adalah kawasan yang unsur pembentuk tanahnya
sebagian besar berupa sisa-sisa bahan organik yang tertimbun dalam
waktu yang lama.
5. Kawasan Resapan air adalah daerah yang mempunyai kemampuan
tinggi untuk meresapkan air hujan sehingga merupakan tempat
pengisian air bumi (akifer) yang berguna sebagai sumber air.
6. Sempadan Pantai adalah kawasan tertentu sepanjang pantai yang
mempunyai manfaat penting untuk mempertahankan kelestarian
fungsi pantai.
7. Sempadan Sungai adalah Kawasan sepanjang kiri kanan sungai,
termasuk sungai buatan/kanal/saluran irigasi primer, yang mempunyai
manfaat penting untuk mempertahankan kelestarian fungsi sungai.
8. Kawasan sekitar Danau/Waduk adalah kawasan tertentu disekeliling
danau/waduk yang mempunyai manfaat penting untuk
mempertahankan kelestarian fungsi sungai.
9. Kawasan sekitar mata air adalah kawasan disekeliling mata air yang
mempunyai manfaat penting untuk mempertahankan fungsi mata air.
10. Kawasan Suaka Alam adalah kawasan dengan ciri khas tertentu baik di
darat maupun di perairan yang mempunyai fungsi pokok sebagai
kawasan pengawetan peragaman jenis tumbuhan dan satwa beserta
ekosistemnya.
11. Kawasan suaka alam Laut dan Perairan lainya adalah daerah yang
mewakili ekosistem khas di lautan maupun perairan lainya, yang
merupakan habitat alami yang memberikan tempat maupun
perlindungan bagi perkembangan keanekaragaman tumbuhan dan
satwa yang ada.
12. Kawasan Pantai berhutan Bakau adalah kawasan pesisir laut yang
merupakan habitat alami hutan bakau (mangrove) yang berfungsi
memberi perlindungan kepada perikehidupan pantai dan lautan.
13. Taman Nasional adalah kawasan pelestarian alam yang dikelola
dengan sistem zonasi yang dimanfaatkan untuk tujuan pengembangan
ilmu pengetahuan, pendidikan, pariwisata dan rekreasi.
14. Taman Hutan Raya adalah kawasan pelestarian yang terutama
dimanfaatkan untuk tujuan koleksi tumbuhan dan/atau bukan asli,
pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, pendidikan dan latihan, budaya,
pariwisata dan rekreasi.
15. Taman Wisata Alam adalah kawasan Pelestarian alam di darat maupun
di laut yang terutama dimanfaatkan untuk pariwisata dan rekreasi
alam.
16. Kawasan Cagar Budaya dan Ilmu Pengetahuan adalah kawasan yang
merupakan lokasi bangunan hasil budaya manusia yang bernilai tinggi
maupun bentukan geologi yang khas.
17. Kawasan Rawan Bencana Alam adalah kawasan yang sering atau
berpotensi tinggi mengalami bencana alam.
BAB II
TUJUAN DAN SASARAN
Pasal 2
(1). Pengelolaan kawasan lindung bertujuan untuk mencegah timbulnya
kerusakan fungsi lingkungan hidup.
(2). Sasaran Pengelolaan kawasan lindung adalah:
a. Meningkatkan fungsi lindung terhadap tanah, air, iklim,
tumbuhan dan satwa serta nilai sejarah dan budaya bangsa;
b. Mempertahankan keanekaragaman tumbuhan, satwa, tepe
ekosistem, dan keunikan alam.
BAB III
RUANG LINGKUP
Pasal 3
Kawasan lindung sebagaimana dimaksud dalam pasal 1 meliputi:
1. Kawasan yang memberikan perlindungan Kawasan
Bawahannya.
2. Kawasan Perlindungan setempat.
3. Kawasan Suaka Alam dan Cagar Budaya.
4. Kawasan Rawan Bencana Alam.
Pasal 4
Kawasan yang memberikan perlindungan kawasan bawahannya sebagaimana
dimaksud dalam pasal 3 terdiri dari:
1. Kawasan Hutan Lindung.
2. Kawasan Bergambut.
3. Kawasan Resapan Air.
Pasal 5
Kawasan Perlindungan setempat sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 3
terdiri dari:
1. Sempadan Pantai.
2. Sempadan Sungai.
3. Kawasan Sekitar Danau/Waduk.
4. Kawasan Sekitar Mata Air.
Pasal 6
Kawasan Suaka Alam dan cagar Budaya sebagaimana dimaksud dalam pasal
3 terdiri dari:
1. Kawasan Suaka Alam.
2. Kawasan Suaka Alam Laut dan perairan lainya.
3. Kawasan Pantan Berhutan Bakau.
4. Taman Nasional, Taman Hutan Raya dan Taman Wisata Alam.
5. Kawasan Cagar Budaya dan Ilmu Pengetahuan.
BAB IV
POKOK-POKOK KEBIJAKSANAAN KAWASAN LINDUNG
Bagian Pertama
Kawasan yang memberikan Perlindungan Kawasan Bawahannya
Pasal 7
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan hutan lindung dilakukan untuk mencegah
terjadinya erosi, sedimentasi, dan menjaga fungsi hidrologis tanah untuk
menjamin ketersediaan unsur hara tanah, air tanah, dan air permukaan.
Pasal 8
Kriteria kawasan hutan lindung adalah:
a. Kawasan Hutan dengan faktor-faktor lereng lapangan, jenis
tanah, curah hujan yang melebihi nilai skor 175, dan/atau;
b. Kawasan hutan yang mempunyai lereng lapangan 40% atau
lebih dan/atau
c. Kawasan Hutan yang mempunyai ketinggian diatas permukaan
laut 2.000 meter atau lebih.
Pasal 9
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan bergambut dimaksudkan untuk
mengendalikan hidrologi wilayah, yang berfungsi sebagai penambaat air dan
pencegah banjir, serta melindungi ekosistem yang khas di kawasan yang
bersangkutan.
Pasal 10
Kriteria kawasan bergambut adalah tanah bergambut dengan ketebalan 3
meter atau lebih yang terdapat dibagian hulu sungai dan rawa.
Pasal 11
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan resapan air dilakukan untuk memberikan
ruang yang cukup bagi peresapan air hujan pada daerah tertentu untuk
keperluan penyediaan kebutuhan air tanah dan penenggulangan banjir, baik
untuk kawasan bawahannya maupun kawasan yang bersangkutan.
Pasal 12
Kriteria kawasan resapan air adalah curah hujan yang tinggi, struktur tanah
meresapkan air dan bentuk geomorfologi yang mampu meresapkan air hujan
secara besar-besaran.
Bagian kedua
Kawasan Perlindungan setempat
Pasal 13
Perlindungan terhadap sempadan pantai dilakukan untuk melindungi wilayah
pantai dari kegiatan yang mengganggu kelestarian fungsi pantai.
Pasal 14
Kriteria sempadan pantai adalah daratan sepanjang tepian yang lebarnya
proporsional dengan bentuk dan kondisi fisik pantai minimal 100 meter dari
titik pasang tertinggi ke arah darat.
Pasal 15
Perlindungan terhadap sempadan sungai dilakukan untuk melindungi sungai
dari kegiatan manusia yang dapat mengganggu dan merusak kualitas air
sungai, kondisi fisik pinggir dan dasar sungai serta mengamankan aliran
sungai.
Pasal 16
Kriteria sempadan sungai adalah:
a. Sekurang-kurangnya 100 meter dari kiri kanan sungai besar
dan 50 meter di kiri kanan anak sungai yang berada diluar
pemukiman.
b. Untuk sungai di kawasan pemukiman berupa sempadan sungai
yang diperkirakan cukup untuk dibangun jalan inspeksi antara
10 - 15 meter.
Pasal 17
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan sekitar danau/waduk dilakukan untuk
melindungi danau/waduk dari kegiatan budidaya yang dapat mengganggu
kelestarian fungsi danau/waduk.
Pasal 18
Kriteria kawasan sekitar danau/waduk adalah daratan sepanjang tepian
danau/waduk yang lebarnya proporsional dengan bentuk dan kondisi fisik
danau/waduk antara 50 - 100 meter dari titik pasang tertinggi ke arah darat.
Pasal 19
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan sekitaer mata air dilakukan untuk
melindungi mata air dari kegiatan budidaya yang dapat merusak kualitas air
dan kondisi fisik kawasan sekitarnya.
Pasal 20
Kriteria kawasan sekitar mata air adalah sekurang-kurangnya dengan jarijari
200 meter di sekitar mata air.
Bagian Ketiga
Kawasan Suaka Alam dan Cagar Budaya
Pasal 21
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan suaka alam dilakukan untuk melindungi
keanekaragaman biota, tipe ekosistem, gejala dan keunikan alam bagi
kepentingan plasma nutfah, ilmu pengetahuan dan pembangunan pada
umumnya.
Pasal 22
Kawasan suaka alam terdiri dari cagar alam, suaka margasatwa, hutan
wisata, daerah perlindungan plasma nutfah dan daerah pengungsian satwa.
Pasal 23
(1) Kriteria cagar alam adalah:
a. Kawasan yang ditunjuk mempunyai keanekaragaman jenis
tumbuhan dan satwa dan tipe ekosistemnya;
b. Mewakili formasi biota tertentu dan/atau unit-unit penyusun;
c. Mempunyai kondisi alam, baik biota maupun fisiknya yang
masih asli dan tidak atau belum diganggu manusia;
d. Mempunyai luas dan bentuk tertentu agar menunjang
pengelolaan yang efektif dengan daerah penyangga yang cukup
luas;
e. Mempunyai ciri khas dan dapat merupakan satu-satunya contoh
di suatu daerah serta keberadaannya memerlukan upaya
konservasi.
(2) Kriteria suaka margasatwa adalah:
a. Kawasan yang ditunjuk merupakan tempat hidup dan
perkembangbiakan dari suatu jenis satwa yang perlu dilakukan
upaya konservasinya;
b. Memiliki keanekaragaman dan populasi satwa yang tinggi;
c. Merupakan tempat dan kehidupan bagi jenis satwa migran
tertentu;
d. Mempunyai luas yang cukup sebagai habitat jenis satwa yang
bersangkutan.
(3) a. Kawasan yang ditunjuk memiliki keadaan yang menarik dan
indah baik secara alamiah maupun buatan manusia;
b. Memenuhi kebutuhan manusia akan rekreasi dan olah raga
serta terletak dekat pusat-pusat permukiman penduduk;
c. Mengandung satwa buru yang dapat dikembangbiakkan
sehingga memungkinkan perburuan secara teratur dengan
mengutamakan segi rekreasi, olah raga dan kelestarian satwa;
d. Mempunyai luas yang cukup dan lapangannya tidak
membahayakan.
(4) Kriteria daerah perlindungan plasma nutfah adalah:
a. Areal yang ditunjuk memiliki jenis plasma nutfah tertentu yang
belum terdapat di dalam kawasan konservasi yang telah
ditetapkan;
b. Merupakan areal tempat pemindahan satwa yang merupakan
tempat kehidupan baru bagi satwa yang merupakan tempat
kehidupan baru bagi satwa tersebut;
c. Mempunyai luas cukup dan lapangannya tidak membahayakan.
(5) Kriteria daerah pengungsian satwa:
a. Areal yang ditunjuk merupakan wilayah kehidupan satwa yang
sejak semula menghuni areal tersebut.
b. Mempunyai luas tertentu yang memungkinkan berlangsungnya
proses hidup dan kehidupan serta berkembangbiaknya satwa
tersebut.
Pasal 24
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan suaka alam laut dan perairan lainnya
dilakukan untuk melindungi keanekaragaman biota, tipe ekosistem, gejala
dan keunikan alam bagi kepentingan plasma nutfah, keperluan pariwisata
dan ilmu pengetahuan.
Pasal 25
Kriteria kawasan suaka alam laut dan perairan lainnya adalah kawasan
berupa perairan laut, perairan darat, wilayah pesisir, muara sungai, gugusan
karang dan atol yang mempunyai ciri khas berupa keragaman dan/atau
keunikan ekosistem.
Pasal 26
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan pantai berhutan bakau dilakukan untuk
melestarikan hutan bakau sebagai pembentuk ekosistem hutan bakau dan
tempat berkembangbiaknya berbagai biota laut disamping sebagai pelindung
pantai dan pengikisan air laut serta pelindung usaha budidaya di
belakangnya.
Pasal 27
Kriteria kawasan pantai berhutan bakau adalah minimal 130 kali nilai ratarata
perbedaan air pasang tertinggi dan terendah tahunan diukur dari garis
air surut terendah kearah darat.
Pasal 28
Perlindungan terhadap taman nasional, taman hutan raya dan taman wisata
alam dilakukan untuk pengembangan pendidikan, rekreasi dan pariwisata,
serta peningkatan kualitas lingkungan sekitarnya dan perlindungan dari
pencemaran.
Pasal 29
Kriteria taman nasional, taman hutan raya dan taman nasional dan wisata
alam adalah berhutan atau bervegetasi tetap yang memiliki tunbuhan dan
satwa yang beragam, memiliki arsitektur bentang alam yang baik dan
memiliki akses yang baik untuk keperluan pariwisata.
Pasal 30
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan cagar budaya dan ilmu pengetahuan
dilakukan untuk melindungi kekayaan budaya bangsi berupa peninggalanpeninggalan
sejarah, bangunan erkeologi dan monumen nasional, dan
keragaman bentuk geologi, yang berguna untuk pengembangan ilmu
pengetahuan dari ancaman kepunahan yang disebabkan oleh kegiatan alam
maupun manusia.
Pasal 31
Kriteria kawasan cagar budaya dan ilmu pengetahuan adalah tempat serta
ruang disekitar bangunan bernilai budaya tinggi, situs purbakala dan
kawasan dengan bentukan geologi tertentu yang mempunyai manfaat tinggi
untuk pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan.
Bagian Keempat
Kawasan Rawan Bencana Alam
Pasal 32
Perlindungan terhadap kawasan rawan bencana alam dilakukan untuk
melindungi manusia dan kegiatannya dari bencana yang disebabkan oleh
alam maupun secara tidak langsung oleh perbuatan manusia.
Pasal 33
Kriteria kawasan rawan bencana alam adalah kawasan yang diidetifikasi
sering dan berpotensi tinggi mengalami bencana alam seperti letusan gunung
berapi, gempa bumi, dan tanah longsor.
BAB V
PENETAPAN KAWASAN LINDUNG
Pasal 34
(1) Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat I menetapkan wilayah-wilayah tertentu
sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 3 sebagai kawasan lindung daerah
masing-masing dalam suatu Peraturan Daerah Tingkat I, disertai
dengan lampiran penjelasan dan peta dengan tingkat ketelitian
minimal skala 1 : 250.000 serta memperhatikan kondisi wilayah yang
bersangkutan.
(2) Dalam menetapkan kawasan lindung sebagaimana dimaksud dalam
ayat (1), Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat I harus memperhatikan
peraturan perundang-undangan yang berkaitan dengan penetapan
wilayah tertentu sebagai bagian dari kawasan lindung.
(3) Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat II menjabarkan lebih lanjut kawasan
lindung sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) dan ayat (2) bagi
daerahnya ke dalam peta dengan tingkat ketelitian minimal skala 1 :
100.000, dalam bentuk Peraturan Daerah Tingkat II.
(4) Pelaksanaan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) dilakukan secara
terpadu dan lintas sektoral dengan mempertimbangkan masukan dari
Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat II.
Pasal 35
Apabila dalam penetapan wilayah tertentu terjadi perbenturan kepentingan
antar sektor, Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat I dapat mengajukan kepada Tim
Pengelolaan Tata Ruang Nasional untuk memperoleh saran penyelesaian.
Pasal 36
(1) Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat II mengupayakan kesadaran masyarakat
akan tanggung jawabnya dalam pengelolaan kawasan lindung.
(2) Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat I dan Tingkat II mengumumkan kawasankawasan
lindung sebagaimana dimaksud dalam Pasal 34 kepada
masyarakat.
BAB VI
PENGENDALIAN KAWASAN LINDUNG
Pasal 37
(1) Di dalam kawasan lindung dilarang melakukan kegiatan budidaya,
kecuali yang tidak mengganggu fungsi lindung.
(2) Di dalam kawasan suaka alam dan kawasan cagar budaya dilarang
melakukan kegiatan budidaya apapun, kecuali kegiatan yang berkaitan
dengan fungsinya dan tidak mengubah bentang alam, kondisi
penggunaan lahan, serta ekosistem alami yang ada.
(3) Kegiatan budidaya yang sudah ada di kawasan lindung yang
mempunyai dampak penting terhadap lingkungan hidup dikenakan
ketentuan-ketentuan yang berlaku sebagaimana dimaksud dalam
Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 29 Tahun 1986 tentang Analisis
Mengenai Dampak lingkungan.
(4) Apabila menurut Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan kegiatan
budidaya mengganggu fungsi lindung harus dicegah
perkembangannya, dan fungsi sebagai kawasan lindung dikembalikan
secara bertahap.
Pasal 38
(1) Dengan tetap memperhatikan fungsi lindung kawasan yang
bersangkutan di dalam kawasan lindung dapat dilakukan penelitian
eksplorasi mineral dan air tanah, serta kegiatan lain yang berkaitan
dengan pencegahan bencana alam.
(2) Apabila ternyata di kawasan lindung sebagaimana dimaksud dalam
ayat (1) terdapat indikasi adanya deposit mineral atau air tanah atau
kekayaan alam lainnya yang bila diusahakan dinilai amat berharga
bagi negara, maka kegiatan budidaya di kawasan lindung tersebut
dapat diizinkan sesuai dengan ketentuan peraturan perundangundangan
yang berlaku.
(3) Pengelolaan kegiatan budidaya sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (2)
dilakukan dengan tetap memelihara fungsi lindung kawasan yang
bersangkutan.
(4) Apabila penambangan bahan galian dilakukan, penambang bahan
galian tersebut wajib melaksanakan upaya perlindungan terhadap
lingkungan hidup dan melaksanakan rehabilitasi daerah bekas
penambangannya, sehingga kawasan lindung dapat berfungsi kembali.
(5) Ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1), ayat (2), ayat (3)
dan ayat (4), diatur lebih lanjut oleh Menteri yang berwenang, setelah
mendapat pertimbangan dari Tim Koordinasi Pengelolaan Tata Ruang
Nasional.
Pasal 39
(1) Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat II wajib mengendalikan pemanfaatan
ruang di kawasan lindung.
(2) Ketentuan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1) meliputi kegiatan
pemantauan, pengawasan dan penertiban.
(3) Apabila Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat II tidak dapat menyelesaikan
pengendalian pemanfaatan kawasan lindung sebagaimana dimaksud
dalam ayat (1) dan ayat (2), wajib diajukan kepada Gubernur Kepala
Daerah Tingkat I untuk diproses langkah tindak lanjutnya.
(4) Apabila Gubernur Kepala Daerah Tingkat I tidak dapat menyelesaikan
pengendalian pemanfaatan sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (3),
wajib diajukan kepada Tim Koordinasi Pengelolaan Tata Ruang
Nasional.
BAB VII
KETENTUAN LAIN-LAIN
Pasal 40
(1) Selambat-lambatnya dua tahun setelah Keputusan Presiden ini
ditetapkan, setiap Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat I sudah harus
menetapkan Peraturan Daerah tentang penetapan kawasan lindung,
dan segera sesudah itu Pemerintah Daerah Tingkat II menjabarkannya
lebih lanjut bagi daerah masing-masing.
(2) Penetapan kawasan lindung sebagaimana dimaksud dalam ayat (1),
apabila dipandang perlu dapat disempurnakan dalam waktu setiap
lima tahun sekali.
BAB VIII
KETENTUAN PENUTUP
Pasal 41
Keputusan Presiden ini mulai berlaku pada tanggal ditetapkan.
Ditetapkan di Jakarta
pada tanggal 25 Juli 1990
PRESIDEN REPUBLIK INDONESIA
ttd.
SOEHARTO
______________________________________
LAUNCHING
MODEL FOREST
INDONESIA
PROCEEDINGS
Jakarta, 2 December 2004
as part of the International Model Forest Network
Launching
Model Forest Indonesia
as part of the International Model Forest Network
Proceedings
Jakarta, 2 December 2004
National Library of Indonesia Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Indonesia. Ministry of Forestry. Proceedings of Launching model forest Indonesia as part of the International Model Forest Network, Jakarta, 2 December 2004/Ministry of Forestry and CIFOR. Bogor, Indonesia: Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), 2006.
87p.
ISBN: 979-24-4619-2
CAB Thesaurus: 1. forest management 2. forest policy 3. partnerships 4. forestry development 5. models 6. development projects 7. international cooperation 8. Indonesia 9. regional government 10. conferences I. Title II. International Model Forest Network Secretariat
© 2006 by Ministry of Forestry and CIFOR
All rights reserved. Published in 2006
Printed by Inti Prima Karya, Indonesia
Cover photos by Silver Hutabarat, Alain Compost and Herwasono Soedjito
Design and layout by Eko Prianto
Published by
Center for International Forestry Research
Jl. CIFOR, Situ Gede, Sindang Barang,
Bogor Barat 16680, Indonesia
Tel.: +62 (251) 622622; Fax: +62 (251) 622100
E-mail: cifor@cgiar.org
Web site: http://www.cifor.cgiar.org
Abbreviations iv
Foreword from Minister of Forestry vi
Foreword from Head of Forestry Planning Agency vii
1. Introduction 1
2. Launching 2
1. Model Forest: Field Implementation of NFP 4
2. Model Forest: Field Implementation of NFP 4
3. Introduction to Berau Model Forest 8
4. Introduction to Margowitan Model Forest 10
5. Introduction to Malinau Research Forest 13
3. Discussion 15
1. Social Forestry 15
2. Model Forest: Development in Other Countries 20
4. Action Plan 32
Appendices 26
1. Remark of the Minister of Forestry 26
2. Remark of the Head of Forestry Planning Agency 31
3. Presentation of SAM II (Social Forestry) 35
4. Presentation of Brian Bonnel (IMFNS) 44
5. Presentation of Patrick Durst (FAO) 52
6. Presentation of Dr. Silver Hutabarat (Coordinator, MF Indonesia) 57
7. Presentation of Dr. Achmad Delmy (Berau Model Forest) 70
8. Presentation of John Novarly (Margowitan Model Forest) 78
9. Agenda of the Launching of Model Forest Indonesia 84
10. List of Invitees 85
Table of Contents
AKSF Areal Kelola Sosial Forestry (Social Forestry Management Area)
BFMP Bureau Forest Management Project
BMZ Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwiklung
C & I Criteria and Indicators
CBFM Community Based Forest Management
CGI Consultative Group on Indonesia
CIFOR Centre for International Forestry Research
DfID Department for International Development
FAO Food and Agricultural Organization
FORDA Forestry Research and Development Agency
HKm Hutan Kemasyarakatan (Community Forest)
HPH Hak Pengusahaan Hutan (Forest Concession) HTI Hutan Tanaman Industri (Industrial Forest Plantation)
IFF Intergovernmental Forum on Forest
IMFNS International Model Forest Network Secretariat
IPF Intergovernmental Panel on Forest
IRD Institut de Recherche pour le Developpment (France Institute for Research and Development)
ITTO The International Tropical Timber Organization
KPH Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan (Forest Management Unit)
KPHK Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan Konservasi (Conservation Forest Management Unit)
KPHL Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan Lindung (Protection Forest Management Unit)
Abbreviations
KPHP Kesatuan Pemangkuan Hutan Produksi (Production Forest Management Unit)
LFB The Lin’an Forest Bureau
LIPI Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (Indonesian Institute of Sciences)
LMF Lin’an Model Forest
LMFCC The Lin’an Model Forest Partnership Cooperative Committee
MF Model Forest
MRF Malinau Research Forest
NFP National Forest Program
NGO Non Government Organization
NTFP Non Timber Forest Product
PHBM Pengelolaan Hutan Bersama Masyarakat (Managing the Forest with the Community)
SF Social Forestry
SFM Sustainable Forest Management
Ulot WMF Ulot Watershed Model Forest
UNDP United Nation Development Program
UNFF United Nations Forum on Forest
We heartily welcome the preparation of this Proceeding of the Launching of Model Forest Indonesia, which is a compilation of presentations and discussions presented during the launching event conducted on December 2, 2004. This is deemed important to broaden the understanding of model forest among many parties. We hope that by being understood by more parties, the concept of model forest will receive stronger support.
We would like to extend our appreciation to the organizing committee, who has undertaken the launching of the model forest concept very well. The same goes to the donors who have contributed to the event as well as the preparation of this proceeding, namely IMFNS and CIFOR. We hope that this cooperation will continue in the future to achieve the vision and mission of the Department of Forestry. We are also grateful to all the participants of the launching of Model Forest Indonesia who are all actively involved in the discussions.
As one of the so many efforts already and to be undertaken by the Department of Forestry to achieve sustainable forest management, model forest seems to be a promising method of forest management by involving all stakeholders. We have great hope that these two launched model forests, Berau and Margowitan Model Forests, will be well managed and become examples Indonesia could be proud of. Therefore, let us join forces to develop our forest together by involving all stakeholders and fight all types of forest destructing activities.
Jakarta, July 2005
Minister of Forestry
MS Kaban
Foreword
MINISTER OF FORESTRY
OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA
The Proceedings of the Launching of Model Forest Indonesia is prepared as an account of the cooperation work with the International Model Forest Network Secretariat (IMFNS) undertaken on December 2, 2004. We would like to make use of this opportunity to extend our deepest gratitude and appreciation to IMFN Secretariat located in Ottawa, Canada, for its full support to the event closely related to the launching of Model Forest Indonesia. Our gratitude and appreciation are extended to FAO, for attending this event as an expression of its support. We thank CIFOR, for its assistance in compiling the Proceeding of the Launching of Model Forest Indonesia. We hope that this cooperation keeps continuing.
We are also thankful to all participants, especially those coming from outside Jakarta/Java (Berau, Malinau), and the Regional Governments of Margowitan, Perum Perhutani and PT Inhutani I, for attending and participating in the Launching of Model Forest Indonesia.
Finally, it is hoped that results obtained from the Launching of Model Forest Indonesia compiled in this proceedings will be beneficial for all of the participants. For the regional governments of Margowitan and Berau Regencies in particular, and for the regional government of Malinau, results of the discussion will serve as helpful tools in developing the concept of model forest in responding to the concerns of many parties regarding the destructions of forest resources and their ecosystems. We hope that the development of model forest will become a joint effort in overcoming the destruction of forest resources and finding its solutions.
Jakarta, July 2005
Director General for Forestry Planning
Boen M. Purnama
Foreword
MINISTRY OF FORESTRY
OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
1
This proceeding is prepared based on results of the meeting on the Launching of Model Forest Indonesia conducted by the Department of Forestry in cooperation with the International Model Forest Network Secretariat (IMFNS), Canada and FAO on December 2, 2004 at the Manggala Wanabakti, Jakarta.
The purpose of the launching of Model Forest Indonesia is in the framework of presenting the Department of Forestry’s full support to the development program of model forest in Indonesia, which final goal is sustainable forest management (SFM). This commitment is shown by launching 2 (two) locations of Indonesian model forest, namely Berau Model Forest at Berau Regency, East Kalimantan, and Margowitan Model Forest which is located in 4 (four) regencies in East Java: Madiun, Ponorogo, Ngawi and Magetan (abbreviated into Margowitan).
It should be noted that Berau Model Forest has been registered as member of the International Model Forest Network since 2000 and Margowitan became member in 2003. However, December 2, 2004 is the date the model forest concept was accepted by the Department of Forestry by the launching of the two model forests by the Minister of Forestry, M.S. Kaban.
This Proceedings is a compilation of papers, presentations and discussions presented during the meeting on the Launching of Indonesian Model Forest. To enrich information on model forest several information, in the form of papers and presentations not presented during the event, are also included in this proceeding.
It is hoped that this Proceedings will be useful to all parties, be it decision makers at the central as well as regional levels, and the general people who are interested in the sustainability of Indonesian forest.
The launching and this Proceedings are results of a participatory work of many parties. Thanks are therefore extended to the participants of the meeting, presenters of paper and presentation, chairpersons of the sessions and organizers, who have done all within their means to make the event successful. The launching meeting is also attended by Brian Bonnel of IMFNS, who has given full support in his attendance as well as financial support. The participation of Patrick Durst of FAO is also very valuable for Indonesia, as concrete support of FAO to the development of model forest in Indonesia. Preparation of this Proceedings is made possible by financial and other facilities assistance from CIFOR.
Introduction
1
PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
2
We know that to be able to sustain life, forest has to be well managed. And forest management in Indonesia is not only beneficial for Indonesians, but also for the whole world by providing tangible as well as intangible benefits. However, the development of natural forest in Indonesia, as well as in other parts of the world, is sufficiently depressed. This condition is worsened by the negative impacts of the economic crisis of 1997/1998. In a certain period of time the forest destruction reached 1.6 million hectare per annum.
This concern has pushed the Indonesian Government to prepare and develop serious steps and efforts to settle problems in this very complex forestry sector. International commitments such as the commitment of the Indonesian Government to the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), is a part of the development process of the Indonesian forestry policy. Without setting aside the Five Prioritized Policies, which require real and immediate steps and actions, namely Overcoming Theft and Trade of Illegal Timber, Revitalization of Forestry Sector especially Forestry Industry, Rehabilitation and Conservation of Forest and Land, Economic Empowerment of Peoples Living Within and Around the Forest Area, and Consolidation of Forest Areas.
Existing problems within the implementation of the Five Prioritized Policies are already identified and follow-up actions in the field are being undertaken. It is hoped that satisfactory results of the implementations of the Prioritized Forestry Policies will have positive impacts on the image of forestry and management of forest resources in Indonesia, which eventually will increase the competitiveness of forestry products in the international market.
Within the framework of those five prioritized policies, serious interest is shown in the development of human resources. The success of the forestry development program will be better guaranteed if it is managed by professional and qualified hands. Therefore, programs on capacity building through education and training based on competence are synergistically implemented.
Launching
2
1. Executive Summary
Remarks by the Minister of Forestry at the launching of Model Forest Indonesia
PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA 3
New problems in the 21st century requiring our joint attention because of their great environmental impacts nationally and internationally are namely:
The process of globalization in trade, production and technology has to be related to its positive impacts on the environment. Decentralization problems emerge as by products of globalization.
Social conflicts bringing serious environment destructions are, among others:
• Poverty and inequity become sufficiently serious promoters of environment destruction.
• Sectoral sustainability needs to be developed in mining industry and services besides agriculture and forestry.
• Science and technology can increase development of the developing countries to prevent the growth of inequity gap between developed and developing countries from getting bigger and destroying the environment.
As already understood, sustainable forest management is not the responsibility of the Ministry of Forestry solely, but also the responsibility of all parties, the regional governments as well as the non-governmental organizations and majority of the people.
Through the forum of Model Forest Indonesia, which is currently being developed in Berau, East Kalimantan and Margowitan, East Java, to be immediately followed by Malinau, East Kalimantan, it is hoped that there will be agreements in developing the program and action plans as well as support and management of the funding. It is also hoped that there will be support and attention from all Forestry partners and observers to jointly develop the model forest concept as one of the tools towards sustainable forest management in each country work area according to its policies and priorities.
4 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
Introduction
“Forest for People”. This sentence is a very famous theme of a big congress, namely the World Forestry Congress VIII conducted in Jakarta in 1978. So wide is the meaning of “forest for people” and so high is the aspiration hoped from the theme. The essence is forest should be utilized for the benefit of mankind. The congress has been so long in the past, is the aspiration or hope desired by the congress already fulfilled? Is forest managed and utilized for the benefit of mankind especially peoples living in and around the forest? In fact the hope brought forth during the congress and the existing reality is so far apart. The Indonesian forest resources are tremendously decreasing quantitatively as well as qualitatively. And the welfare of the peoples living in and around the forest does not change much since the congress ended.
As impacts of utilization of forest resources deviating from sustainable principles, we left behind very large destructed land and forest. Ministry of Forestry data shows that currently there are more than 30 million hectares of destructed land and forest needing rehabilitation. Observing the occurring development it seems that the forest area requiring rehabilitation will keep on increasing.
It is obvious that desire and facts are very different, but Indonesia keeps on trying to meet all its commitments, national as well as international. Nevertheless, stress on forest becomes more and more difficult to encounter, among other it is because of the increasing number of actors having interests in forest and forestry matters. It is therefore unavoidable that forest and forestry problems can not be handled by the forestry party only, but should include all related parties. Forest could not be seen as a system free of other activities, but a sub-system within a regional development system. A concept called Model Forest seems to make the achievement of the said goal possible.
The Meaning of Model Forest
What is a Model Forest (MF)?
• MF is a large scale forest ecosystem, combined with various forest utilizations.
• In MF, stakeholders should be provided with sufficient information and be able to participate in making decisions of how the area will be utilized and managed. Without having sufficient information, it is impossible that participation will be effective.
• The main pillar of MF is stakeholders’ partnership with various opinions on social, economic and environmental aspects. In MF, difference of opinions is natural, but there should be a jointly approved consensus.
• In MF there should be regular meetings conducted for sharing of information, opinions and ideas of MF activities and their impacts, current as well as in the possible future.
MF can be identified through the accompanying attributes:
Basic Attributes:
1. Partnership – local and inclusive.
2. Commitments.
3. Large area – influential to policies, usually more than 100,000 hectares.
4. Scope of activities: reflecting reality and needs, local and national.
5. Structure of organization: constructive, transparent, participative and consensus.
2. Model Forest: Field Implementation of NFP
Silver Hutabarat
PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA 5
6. Constructive commitment, exchange of information and experiences within a network.
Additional Attributes:
1. Voluntary participation of stakeholders.
2. Demonstration of best appropriate practice and process for SFM operational scale.
3. Replicable, adaptive and responsive to change.
4. Practical C & I development in the field.
5. Feed back for national forest and forestry policy planning.
Why a Model Forest?
The concept of MF can be considered as the implementation of the National Forestry Program (NFP) at the local level. MF is the transformation of NFP into action forms and continuously giving feedbacks to the policy level. MF is also an important and effective tool to translate Forest Principles and IPF/IFF/UNFF proposals into action level in the field.
The goal of MF is to promote SFM at the field level and to identify, apply and share experiences in innovative approaches and techniques.
Partnership in MF provides forum for stakeholders to exchange views and information and impacts of MF actions. It is hoped that decisions made by stakeholders consider the needs, priorities and values of all stakeholders. Implementation of MF requires a big change of the ‘top down’ approach’ in the utilization and management of forest resources and communal change in thought and actions, since so far it gives more stress to the rights and not the obligations and responsibilities. One of MF strengths is its networking, at the local level as well as national and international levels. The networking makes it possible for all MF to exchange information and experiences regarding implementations and problems encountered by each MF.
Impact of Model Forest
It is hoped that the implementation of MF in the field to achieve SFM will bring positive impact.
At the local level:
• Strengthening partnership
• Broadening consultation and good governance
• Indicator monitoring at local level and better forest management practice
• Increasing the level of people’s livelihood
• Conflict resolution
• Capacity building/strengthening the capacity of all stakeholders
Provincial/national level:
• Replicating model forest in other locations
• Sharing of information and knowledge, and
• Transfer of technology (regional and international networking)
• Capacity strengthening
International level:
• Transfer of knowledge and technology
• Perfecting and validating model forest approach (MFA)
• More countries and institutions making model forest
• Establishing regional networks (samples for Latin America and Asia Pacific)
• Better practices, demonstrations, trainings, capacity strengthening and change of policy in the field
6 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
History of Indonesia’s Involvement in Model Forest
The concept of model forest was first introduced in Canada in 1991. Then, during the World Summit Conference in Rio de Janeiro, 1992, Canada declared the establishment of the International Model Forest Network, with initial participation of several countries, namely Canada, Mexico, Russia and Malaysia. The step was later followed by other countries, and Japan once was very supportive to the model forest concept. Model forest does not mean an already ideal and exemplary forest area, but a dynamic process aimed at achieving sustainable forest management through full participation of the stakeholders.
Indonesia’s first involvement is though its participation (Titus Sariyanto and Silver Hutabarat) as invitees to the International Model Forest Network Workshop in Tokyo, Japan, in March 1998, followed by several other workshops. Later on the Director General of Forest Exploitation requested the European Union grant project, BFMP (Berau Forest Management Project) to study the possibility of its implementation at Labanan, Berau, East Kalimantan, which is an area of PT Inhutani I.
On May 31, 2000, BFMP conducted the first International Workshop on Model Forest in Indonesia. Attending the workshop are speakers from IMFNS, namely Mr. Peter Besseau and Dr. Tang Hon Tat of FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization). The Workshop is also attended by Mr. Oscar Mascagni of the European Commission. Since then Indonesia begins to implement the concept of model forest in Berau, and the author is appointed as the Indonesian focal point for Model Forest.
Developing Situation
It is urgently necessary to immediately implement MF since the situation is becoming worse for forest sustainability, among others:
• Decentralization. Even though it is important, there are several negative aspects in its implementation, i.e. very easy access to the forest, hence forest over-exploitation.
• Forest-threatening mining activities, even threatened protected forests.
• Changing forestry institutions (related to decentralization) causing weak control.
• Local community claims more aggressively.
• Non-sufficient information, and manipulated by third party, to exploit forest by hiding behind local community’s right.
• Institutions do not adapt fast enough.
Dissemination and Development of MF
Since the implementation of MF in Labanan forest, Berau, East Kalimantan, several areas have shown interests to try MF, among others Perum Perhutani (2000) with the Margowitan concept, which is Perum Perhutani forest areas located in the Regencies of Madiun, Ponorogo, Ngawi and Magetan. The main issue encountered in this area is the issue of water resources. Forest management in this area will not be sustainable without involving all stakeholders whose needs are different. MF can give a consensus by adopting those different needs. It seems that Bulungan Research Forest, which later renamed Malinau Research Forest managed by CIFOR, is very relevant to become the next location for developing a model forest.
To further develop MF, it is deemed necessary to establish MF National Secretariat, which will be functional in coordinating the development of MF in Indonesia and undertake exchange of information and experiences with other MFs through a national, regional and international networking.
PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA 7
MF process makes it very possible for assisting the development of community involvement in forest management (one of the conditions of NFP process). Even though the will to implement MF is quite high, it is still hindered by the weak capacity especially in the regions.
The most important factor to obtain successful implementation of MF is the commitment of the Government of Indonesia, the Ministry of Forestry in particular, to remain consistent in approving the development of MF in Indonesia. MF is very relevant with the Ministry of Forestry’s program on Social Forestry. MF contains the spirit of Social Forestry. Within MF the rights and obligations of all parties should be honoured, which means all parties should learn their obligations and be more realistic about their rights. Transparent organizational structure can be applied through MF process. Now is the right time. Let us consider Darwin’s words: ‘It is not the strongest creature which can survive, also not the smartest, but the creature most responsive to change is the one to survive.”
8 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
PROFILE
Location: Berau area, north of Samarinda, on the eastern coast of East Kalimantan
Year established: From 1996 to 2004 the area has been involved in two EU-supported forest management projects (BFMP + BFBP). The Model Forest process began in 2000. In 2003 the stakeholders decided to modify the size of the area to better suit their resources and capabilities.
Area of MF: 165,930 ha
Description of Area
Two watersheds (the Kelai and Segah). Tropical forest area. Mountainous in the interior with low lying areas in river and coastal regions. The area includes 13 forest villages with a population of about 10,000. The population is composed by Indigenous Dayak from the Berau, Gaai and Kenyah ethnic groups, as well as transmigrants from Java, Sulawesi and Eastern Indonesia.
Forest and Resource Profile
Natural and plantation forests, shifting agriculture. Two logging concessions PT HLL and PT Inhutani I. Approximately 85% of the MF land area is under concession. The area is an important and commercially valuable centre for bird nest collecting (bird nest soup in oriental markets), as well as a source of NTFP such as honey, dammar, rattan and wild game.
The area includes the ‘Strek Plots’. These are forestry research plot used to monitor natural forest growth and biodiversity. The Strek Plots have been monitored since 1989 and represent an invaluable asset for the MF as well as for the national and international forestry research network. The data collected from the Strek Plots are used both nationally and internationally to assess tropical forest growth and conditions.
Economic Profile
Forestry is the dominant player (logging, sawmilling and supporting industries). Other sectors include agriculture and fisheries, bird nest collection, ecotourism and home industry. Coal is also present in the MF area, however no coal exploitation has begun yet.
Key Management Issues/Challenges
• Sustainable forest resource management
• Need to solve local problems locally
• Need to manage forest resources for community benefit
• Opportunity to create a model/demonstration area of national significance
• Management of conflicts
• Creating participatory processes
• Stakeholder empowerment
• A local coal mining company has requested permission to enter the forest area to
3. Introduction to Berau Model Forest
PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA 9
mine it for coal. So far they request has been denied by the Ministry of Forestry. However due to their continue pressure and insistent request this issue ought to be solved definitively by the national and local government as well as by the MF stakeholders.
Main Partners
Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, PT HLL (Hutansanggam Labanan Lestari) and P.I. Inhutani I, Berau local governments, Berau forestry, estate crops and economic planning line agencies, local villages, industries, national research institutes.
PROGRAM COMPONENTS
Strategic Goals
Manage the forest and the associated natural resources according to SFM and sustainable NRM principles through the cooperation of the MF stakeholders.
Model Forest Activities
Inventory, mapping, GIS, extensive technical training, study of the dynamics of secondary tropical forests.
Stakeholder identification and analysis; awareness building and mobilization of support; development of a workplan; communication and public relations.
The BFMP had observer status in the Regional Model Forest Project, being executed by FAO-Bangkok. Additionally, the project has sent a delegation to visit the Mexican model forests in 1999. BFBP supported and participated to a conference on MF in Indonesia held in Madiun in July 2003. Furthermore BFBP has requested IMFNS assistance to support the Berau MF and its secretariat in the future.
Model Forest Accomplishments
After a long preparation, in December 2003, under BFBP sponsorship and with the participation of all stakeholder, a formal MF proposal was presented and discussed among all Berau MF stakeholder.
Current Priorities
Establish a secretariat for the Berau Model Forest and link the secretariat with national and international NGOs as well as institutions in charge of promoting and supporting the MF principles and process.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Title : Berau Model Forest
Contact Person : Cindy Jacquelline
Address : Berau Model Forest Secretariat
Kompleks PT Inhutani I, Jl. Jend. Gatot Subroto, Sei Bedungun,
Tanjung Redeb.
Kalimantan Timur 77314 – Indonesia
Phone +62 554 221769
Fax +62 554 221769
Email jacquelline@plasa.com
10 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
PROFILE
Location: District of Madiun, Ponorogo, Ngawi and Magetan, East Java, Indonesia
Year established: State Owned Company namely PERHUTANI declared Margowitan as Model Forest in 8 July 2003.
Area of MF: 488,924 ha
Description of Area
Margowitan Model Forest is an eco-regional area of Madiun watershed, which ends at the Bengawan Solo watershed, where a forest area is located covering 4 (four) administrative areas: the regencies of Madiun, Ponorogo, Ngawi and Magetan. There are four Forest Administrative areas, namely Saradan, Madiun, Ngawi and Lawu.
Margowitan is situated at 92.300 m above the sea level. Population density is 9 persons/hectare. The soil type is grumosol, alluvial, mediteran. The air temperature ranges between 16-31ยบ C.
Forest and Resource Profile
Consisting of 4 regental areas, Margowitan area is covered by teak forest, pine forest, eucalyptus forest and other mixed forests. The greater part of its area shares direct boundaries with villages categorized as marginal villages with poor soil condition.
In this area there are two dams (Pondoh and Sangiran) built as water reservoirs and for irrigation. Ngawi area is the up stream of the Bengawan Solo watershed, which is the longest river in Java and is multifunctional for the livelihood of the peoples in its vicinity.
Economic Profile
Margowitan area covering 4 regental areas consists of teak, pine, eucalyptus and other mixed forests, a greater part of its area shares direct boundaries with villages categorized as marginal villages with poor soil condition. This condition causes a conflict of interest between Perum Perhutani and the local community resulting in forest destruction. The destruction takes many forms, such as timber theft, forest clearing, grazing, fire, etc. To decrease the said conflict of interests, it is deemed necessary to involve the local peoples in managing the forest. In 2001 Perum Perhutani has decreed a policy called Managing the Forest with the Community (Pengelolaan Hutan Bersama Masyarakat, PHBM). The spirit of this policy is sharing between Perum Perhutani and the communities and other stakeholders involved in forest management. The implementation of this policy in the field is preceded by a social study to make in-depth understanding of the community’s potentials and desires in forest resource management. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is a tool to start the activity. Some PHBM programs already carried out in Margowitan Model Forest area are:
4. Introduction to Margowitan Model Forest
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1. Planting of Porang (Amorphophalus sp.), which produces carbohydrat with high fibre content. Growing well under the teak stands, porang can be harvested in one year and the mean production is 7-9 kg per plant. Most of the harvest produced by this plant is to be exported to Japan. Having a market for this plant is an alternative for the economic development of peoples around the forest. Planting porang has been carried out in several locations in KPH Madiun and KPH Saradan witha total area of 200 hectare.
2. Planting of sugarcane in the forest area. Sugarcane is the raw material for sugar production, which fabrication process is abundant in the vicinity of Madiun Regency. The limited area for sugarcane planting in privately owned lands will increase the need of land for sugarcane plantations. Through a study jointly conducted by the community and Perum Perhutani, a forest area of 100 hectare within KPH Ngawi has been planted with sugarcane. Its first harvest is attended by several parties, including local government officials, members of the communities in the forest vicinity, NGOs and Perum Perhutani. Profit from sugarcane planting is distributed amongst the communities of the forest vicinity, village and district coffers.
3. Sharing of timber products. From the harvest of forest products, such as timber, Perum Perhutani contributes profits of teak production, either from cutting or thinning, to the communities. It is hoped that members of the communities can also enjoy the benefit and profit of these activities. And hence, improve their concern regarding the existence of the forest. Timber sharing is applied in all forest areas within Margowitan Model Forest.
Key Management Issues/Challenges
• Improving the quality of forest resources
• Improving soil productivity
• Improving conservation Functions
• Improving HO Functions
• Improving business opportunity
• Improving communities economics
Main Partners:
Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, Regental Governments, Perum Perhutani, Lembaga Masyarakat Desa, LSM, and other stakeholders.
PROGRAM COMPONENTS
Strategic Goals
a. Poverty alleviation and economic development
b. Partnership and capacity building
c. Leverage resources
Model Forest Activities
Undertake planning together based on Forest Village Community. Followed by undertaking village planning, which is institutional socialization, establishing boundaries and village strategic plan (Renstra). Village program is then prepared, which is a road map of Sustainable Forest Management of village level, setting up of criteria and indicators. Expected outcome are security, timber products, village income and increase of soil productivity. The next step is multi-parties accompaniment for joint capacity building.
12 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
Model Forest Accomplishment
• Implement the development program for communities in the forest vicinity.
• Community empowerment in regime management program.
• Movement of tree planting for the next generations.
• Land rehabilitation in the forest area by planting useful trees.
• Attend the Workshop on Developing, Monitoring and evaluation System in Model Forest in Thailand.
• Attend International Program for Development Evaluation Training in Carleton University, Ottawa.
• Visit model forests in Canada.
• Conduct informal meetings at regental level to establish joint perception in realizing strategic plan and structure of governance of Margowitan Model Forest.
• Host visits of MF Senior Program for Asia & Pacific.
Current Priorities
Establish a secretariat for the Berau Model Forest and link the secretariat with national and international NGOs as well as institutions in charge of promoting and supporting the MF principles and process.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Title : Margowitan Model Forest
Contact Person : John Novarly
Address : Puslatbanghut Perhutani
Jl. Rimba Mulya No. 11
Madiun
Phone +62 351 - 453094
Fax +62 351 - 453093
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PROFILE
Location: Malinau Research Forest (MRF) lies administratively within the Malinau District, East Kalimantan
Year established: CIFOR began the search for an appropriate site in 1994 and, in October 1995, submitted a recommendation to the Ministry of Forestry for area in Bulungan district, East Kalimantan province. The Minister of Forestry approved it in December 1995, and issued a Minister Decree No. 35/Kpts-II/1996 in January 1996. The approved forest area is about 321,000 Ha consisted primary forest and it is for CIFOR to be developed as a long-term model of exemplary research-based. The interest for CIFOR in this area is to carry out multidisciplinary research activities able to cover the complexity of forest management for multiple use.
For funding purposes, research in MRF has been organized under a number of “project”. On phase I, the International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) and the John D and Catherine T. Mac Arthur Foundation are institutions that contribute large funding. On phase II, ITTO has been funded budget about US $ 0,8 million to support research activities in MRF.
Area of MF: Covered to all Malinau District administrative boundary
Description of Area
Three watersheds (the Malinau, Tubu/Mentarang and Bahau). Tropical forest area. Mountainous in the interior with low lying areas in river. The area includes 95 forest villages with a population of about 57,000. The population is composed by Indigenous Dayak from the Kenyah, Lundaye, Putuk, Punan, Abai and Tidung ethnic groups, as well as transmigrants from Java, Sulawesi and Eastern Indonesia.
Forest and Resource Profile
Natural forests and shifting agriculture. Main logging concession is PT Inhutani II. Approximately 90% of the MRF land area is primary forest. Primary forest of the MRF area is dry land primary forest. Most of the forest is dominated by native vegetation which have various diameter, starting with small canopy tress to large canopy tress. The mountainous area in the interior is an important and commercially valuable centre for bird nest collecting (bird nest soup in oriental markets), as well as a source of NTFP such as honey, gaharu, tengkawang, rattan and wild game.
The area includes the ‘Permanent Sample Plots’. These are forestry research plot used to monitor natural forest growth and biodiversity. The Permanent Sample Plots have been monitored since 1998/1999 and represent an invaluable asset for the MRF as well as for the national and international forestry research network. The data collected from the Permanent Sample Plots are used both nationally and internationally to assess tropical forest growth and conditions.
5. Introduction to Malinau Research Forest
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Economic Profile
Forestry is the dominant player mainly logging activities. Other sectors include agriculture and fisheries, bird nest collection, gaharu and tengkawang collection. Coal is also present in the MRF area, the coal mining concession have been operation since 1999.
Key Management Issues/Challenges
• Sustainable forest resource management
• Need to solve local problems locally
• Need to manage forest resources for community benefit
• Opportunity to create a model/demonstration area of national significance
• Management of conflicts
• Creating participatory processes
• Stakeholder empowerment
• Capacity building
• Integrated district land use planning
Main Partners
Indonesian Ministry of Forestry, FORDA, PT INHUTANI II, Malinau district governments, IRD, DFiD, BMZ, Ford Foundation, LIPI and Mulawarman University.
PROGRAM COMPONENTS
Strategic Goals
Manage the forest and the associated natural resources according to SFM and sustainable NRM principles through the cooperation of the MF stakeholders.
Model Forest Activities
Inventory, mapping, GIS, extensive technical training, study of the dynamics of secondary tropical forests, biodiversity
Stakeholder identification and analysis; awareness building and mobilization of support; development of a work plan; communication and public relations.
MRF has sent delegation to participate to a conference on Model Forest in Indonesia held in Madiun in July 2003 and December 2004.
CONTACT INFORMATION
Title : Malinau Research Forest
Contact Person : Dr. Petrus Gunarso
Address : CIFOR HQ
Jl. CIFOR Situgede, Sindangbarang
Bogor Barat 16680
Indonesia
Phone +62 251 - 622622
Fax +62 251 - 622100
MRF CIFOR
Address : Jl. Raja Pandhita RT VIII, Malinau Kota, Malinau
East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Phone +62 553 - 21559
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3
Discussion
1. Social Forestry
Special Assistant to the Minister Division of Forestry Development as Head of Executing Team of Social Forestry Working Group
Problems/Issues
Current problems/issues in the forestry sector are, among others:
• Increasing pressures on forest area,
• Illegal logging,
• Forest and land fire,
• Claims on forest area,
• Mining activities, etc.
Additional social economic problems of communities within and around the forest are:
• Communities are still not involved in/as agents (actors) of forest management.
• Forest products have not given optimum benefit to the welfare of the communities within and around the forest area.
Therefore, an inter-sectoral capacity building policy has been decreed. Nevertheless, the policy is still considered unstable due to the followings:
• Conflict of interest among sectors,
• Concern for forestry is still low,
• Gap between raw material and set industrial capacity,
• Autonomic perception of forestry, etc.
These create the following bad condition:
• Increasing bad impacts of forest destruction
• Decreasing the environmental quality
• Draughts, floods, landslides, erosions, sedimentation
• Decreasing job opportunity and income of the people/state.
16 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
Therefore, it is required to have:
“UNDERSTANDING, TOGETHERNESS AND COMMITMENT TO INCREASE THE ECONOMY OF THE COMMUNITIES LIVING WITHIN AND AROUND THE FOREST AMONG ALL PARTIES”
All the parties are the common people, government, multi-sectoral central and regional, NGOs, international communities.
Why Social Forestry?
(BACKGROUND, MEANING/UNDERSTANDING, OBJECTIVES, PRINCIPLES, GENERAL POLICY, INTERIM GOALS, IMPLEMENTATION)
Background:
Past forestry development policy tends to be timber oriented and brings the following impacts:
a) does not give sufficient consideration to social-economic variable
b) low synergy in utilizing forest resources
c) increasing conflict in the management of forest resources
The forestry sector actually has a very big potential to participate actively in sustainable and just development by empowering communities which have been quite ‘close’ to forest resources as main actors/partners in forest management.
However, consolidated institutional support and sufficient investment are required. And development of social forestry is aimed at revitalizing the economy of communities within and around the forest, accelerating efforts of forest rehabilitation and control of forest resources destruction by involving related parties. A fair balance between forest resources utilizations and forest functions (economic, ecological and social) is also required. It is hoped that social forestry will provide stakeholders with a distribution of access to forest resources, which also serves as a factual form of decentralization process of forestry.
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What is Social Forestry?
• Social Forestry (SF) is a system of forest resources management in a state forest area or right forest, which gives the opportunity to local communities as main actors and/or partners to improve their welfare and to achieve sustainable forest.
• SF is a forest development policy aimed at encouraging the establishment of a competitive forest entrepreneurial system, based on area management and institutional management by local communities synergizing various existing potentials (government, private, community and nature resources).
• The development of SF is to achieve a forest management system which provides access and role to communities within and around the forest as main actors or partners in managing the forest in order to improve their welfare within the framework of sustainable forest management.
• In its implementation, SF can be integrated with other national strategic programs (such as food availability, extra school education and enhancing small and medium entrepreneurs/cooperatives, etc.).
General Policy of Social Forestry
A. Boundaries
• COMPREHENSIVE: the development of SF is for all components covering area management, business management, synergic and integrated with other development factors and involving all the parties.
• STATUS AND FUNCTIONS OF FOREST AREA: the status of the forest area where SF is applied remains according to its decided main functions.
• LEGALITY FOR COMMUNITIES: development of SF is permitted through forest utilization/forest management/partnership agreement. SF does not give property rights.
18 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
B. Strategy
1. MANAGEMENT OF FOREST AREA AND RESOURCES: is a series of pre-conditioned activities to support SF in optimizing forest utilization (reserving, boundary setting, and mapping and determining work area). AKSF is within the forest management unit (KPHP, KPHK, and KPHL).
2. MANAGEMENT OF INSTITUTION: is a series of activities to establish and strengthen the institution to optimize SF through determination of rules and regulations, organizational consolidation, agreement amongst all parties, community institutions, networks, human resources capacity building, and sarpras.
3. BUSINESS MANAGEMENT: is a series of activities supporting the growth and development of the business in AKSF through provision of opportunities and access, increasing the production and market competitiveness, developing the partnership, technology and marketing.
C. Social forestry amongst sectors & the parties
• Forestry development encounters very complex problems, therefore the involvement of other sectors/parties are required to overcome them.
• Inter-sectoral/partial social forestry activities are aimed to obtain commitments from various sectors to support SF according to each’s tasks , by utilizing the potentials of each sector, to achieve synergy in empowering the communities within and around the forest.
D. Facilitation and coordination of inter-sectoral/partial social forestry
• Purpose
To facilitate and coordinate the preparation of action plan of each related sector to support the successful implementation of Social Forestry.
• Target
A synergy in the action plan of each related sector with the location for social forestry development.
E. Development of social forestry activities in 17 provinces - socialization of social forestry policies
PERMENHUT No. P01/MenHut-II/2004
Section 11: Activities of community empowerment in the field which are already in progress such as Community Forest (HKm), Joint Forest Management with the Communities (PHBM), Joint Forest Management with People and similar activities remain to be developed.
Focus of 2004-2005 Activities
A. Outside Java
1. Petuk Bukit/Palangka Raya/Central Kalimantan, at an open area ex-HPH, seasonal plants planted besides trees.
2. South Konawe/South-East Sulawesi, at ex-teak-reforestation area, ex-HTI SWAKELOLA, seasonal plants under teak stands and management.
3. Boal/Empang Sumbawa Besar/West Nusa Tenggara, ex-teak-reforestation area ex-Perhutani. Seasonal plants under teak stands and management.
B. In Java (alternative being discussed with Perhutani; SF-PHBM)
1. Nganjuk, East Java/Perhutani, plants under tree stands: porang, kunyit pepet and environmental services, managerial partnership.
2. Penyarang/Cilacap, Central Java/Perhutani, plants under tree/stands: ginger and vanilla (?).
3. Garut/West Java/ex Wanalaga Lodaya, Haramay/rami, and sheep farming.
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Strategic Plan for the Follow up of Social Forestry
• Strengthening and developing commitment of the parties.
• For areas/locations where commitment is already established: developing typology of several locations for the social forestry program activities.
• Follow-up decrees of the presidential decisions regarding the roles of various sectors in the development of social forestry program.
• Completing the Minister of Forestry regulation regarding the general manual of social forestry and giving permits/rights to communities to implement social forestry program.
20 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
Introduction
The concept of MF can be considered as the implementation of the National Forest Program (NFP) at the local level. MF is the transformation of NFP into action forms and continuously giving feedbacks to the policy level. MF is also an important and effective tool to translate Forest Principles and IPF/IFF/UNFf proposals into action level in the field.
The goal of MF is to promote SFM at the field level and to identify, apply and share experiences in innovative approaches and techniques.
Partnership in MF provides forum for stakeholders to exchange views and information and impacts of MF actions. It is hoped that decisions made by stakeholders consider the needs, priorities and values of all stakeholders. Implementation of MF requires a big change of the ‘top down’ approach’ in the utilization and management of forest resources and communal change in thought and actions, since so far it gives more stress to the rights and not the obligations and responsibilities. One of MF strengths is its networking, at the local level as well as national and international levels. The networking makes it possible for all MF to exchange information and experiences regarding implementations and problems encountered by each MF.
International networking has been indirectly undertaken by the International Model Forest Network secretariat (IMFNS) in Ottawa, Canada. There is also MF network at the regional level, i.e. in Latin America and preceding it in the Asia-Pacific region, located in Bangkok, Thailand. Since the termination of financial support from Japan, the Asia regional network is currently non-active.
MF in Several Countries
• Benefits and relevance of MF are evidenced in its successful replications in several countries (Canada, Chile, Mexico, Argentina, China, Thailand and Myanmar)
• Growing number of countries and institutions establishing model forests.
• Regional networks are established in Latin America (Mexico, Chile, and Argentina) and Asia-Pacific (China, Thailand, Myanmar and the Philippines). Due to funding constraint, the Asia-Pacific network is currently non-active.
• Full support from FAO, UNDP, and many other countries, donors and institutions.
• There are 32 model forest locations in 12 countries including more than 14 million hectares of land area, namely in Canada, USA, Mexico, Chile, Argentine, Russia, Japan, China, Myanmar, Thailand, the Philippines and Indonesia.
2. Model Forest: Development in Other Countries
Silver Hutabarat
Coordinator, Model Forest Indonesia
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Experience and Lesson learnt from other Model Forests in Asian Countries
China (Lin’an Model Forest)
Observations
The implementation of the Lin’an Model Forest started in 1999 following an International Workshop on Model Forests held in Lin’an, China in March 1999.
The key role of consultations and partnerships with stakeholders in the development of the MF, i.e. a bottom-up approach, was quite different to the traditional “top-down” way of doing things in China. About 30 partners were identified as a result of a stakeholders’ analysis in the early stage of MF implementation. The Lin’an Model Forest Partnership Cooperative Committee (LMFCC) was formed in November 2000, and now has 35 partners with varied interests. The Lin’an Forest Bureau (LFB), Zhejiang Forestry University (ZFU) and Chinese Academy of Forestry (CAF) are core partners of the LMFCC. The MF national secretariat was located in the CAF, and MF-level secretariat in the LFB and a document center in the ZFU).
Impacts included, 2,500 persons/farmers trained and about 30 key persons trained at regional and national level; Lin’an MF experiences have been presented at several national forestry meetings, and the MF partnership concept can be seen in other national forest programme; public awareness on SFM has been increased through visits to LMF by many people from different parts of China. Local partners feel that the MF development has introduced new concepts and information on forestry to them and farmers’ knowledge and skills on forest management were improved. Opinions of farmers and other partners were brought to higher levels. Some conflicts were solved through the partnership group. Some technical problems were solved through pilot research projects.
Philippine (Ulot Watershed Model Forest)
Observations
The Ulot Watershed Model Forest was established in 2000, and is located in the third largest watershed in Samar Island, Central Philippines. It covers an aggregate area of 86,514 ha and includes 23 barangays, 2,223 households and 12,632 occupants. The main income sources in the Ulot WMF are swidden farming, collection of non-timber forest products (e.g. rattan, bamboo, almaciga resin), fishing and hunting.
The selection of the Philippine MF site took a longer time than expected due to initial mis-understanding of the concept and principles of MFs and the MF Approach. The linkage of the Ulot WMF to the DENR’s Community-Based Forest Management projects, Samar Island Bio-diversity Project (SIBP) and watershed ecosystems approach will facilitate the longer term (post-RMFP) implementation of MF activities, and the application of lessons learnt to other watersheds in the SIBP area. Full implementation of MF activities was carried out only in 2001 and 2002.
The Ulot WMF Stakeholders’ Federation was established on March 13, 2001, and a 15-member Board of Directors was elected from the various partner groups (Government, NGO, PO, LGU, 3 barangays and media). By November 2002, the number of partners had increased to 33 organizations, largely because of continuous IEC activities on MF concept and principles, and provision of various livelihood improvement support activities.
Activities carried out included involving local communities in livelihood identification and analysis; training (and re-echo training) on bamboo and rattan planting and utilization (including treatment of rattan); proper tapping of Almaciga resin, C&I, and
22 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
training of trainer’s, making use of trainers and training materials from POs, SIBP, DENR, etc; establishment of nursery for bamboo and rattan, and installation of water system in San Rafael, Hinabangan; upgrading of San Rafael, Hinabangan, multi-purpose hall into Ulot WMG Information Centre, and establishment of a second information center; construction of small rattan storage facility, provision of simple rattan processing tools; development, refinement & implementation of MF-level C&I; perimeter survey and the issuance of two CBFM Agreements, generation of income for the Federation through the leasing of the RMFP-supported upgraded Ulot WMF information centre, rattan storage facility, etc.
Lessons Learnt
Extending technical assistance and some financial support helps build the confidence of stakeholders, thus ensuring their active participation. The benefits gained by the community from the installed water supply facility encouraged participation from other members of the community to the federation. Criteria and indicators (C&I) serves as a tool to strengthen partnership, develop bonding among members of the team and develop their capability to gather, analyze and share or report results. Monthly data gathering and reporting provides information that serve as basis for DENR & other partners to immediately act on issues & concerns; active participation of farmers in the identification and testing of indicators that are available, measurable, and easy to gather, provides a sense of ownership and recognition of the importance of C & I in monitoring progress towards SFM; deployment of Technical Assistance Teams increases the visibility of DENR personnel to address issues, concerns and problems, and extend assistance on forest protection.
POs need the full cooperation and support of other stakeholders to be effective in forest protection. IEC facilitates sharing of information on model forest concepts, processes and activities among stakeholders, and can generate enthusiasm among potential partners to participate in the MF projects. IEC materials written in the local dialect creates a sense of belonging, awareness and can build interest to participate in Model Forest activities.
Participation of the members of the PO and other stakeholders in the delineation of the boundaries of the project avoids conflict. It also provides the opportunity for the members to know the extent of their land occupation.
The MF implementation has served as a forum for the government to get closer to the community and be partners toward sustainable forest management; The MF project has given the community beneficiaries positive perceptions and better hope for their future; Building partnerships is a long and continuing process yet rewarding endeavor; and Strong support from top management encourages active involvement of support staff as well as stakeholders.
Thailand (Ngao Model Forest)
Observations
The Ngao demonstration forest was selected as the first model forest in Thailand. The area covers the 175,159 ha of the Ngao River watershed, with 62 local communities and a population of about 48,000. The Community Forest Bill, which will have significant implications for the MF and related initiatives, is still pending in Parliament.
The Royal Forest Department has been recently re-structured, but its longer term impacts on the MF initiative is not yet known. For the time being, the involvement of the NPC and his staff in the RMFP are unchanged.
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Identification of stakeholders and partnership development activities included national MF inception workshop; consultations with local communities and stakeholders; election of Ngao MF Interim Partnership Committee to prepare for the formalization of the Ngao MF partnership group. The “Ngao Model Forest Association” was subsequently established and legally registered on October 25, 2002.
IEC activities undertaken included installation of signboards in strategic areas within Ngao MF; preparation, (some translation) and distribution of guidelines for developing MF, leaflets, newsletters and posters to stakeholders; three-day summer camp at Tham Pha Tai National Park, Ngao MF to promote awareness of forest conservation and the MF concept among youths; and tree planting and related forest conservation activities in cooperation with local schools and organizations on special occasions.
Livelihood improvement activities included establishment of seed/clone bank for local medicinal plants and bamboo; and nursery establishment and training for promotion of economic NTFPs; collaborative management of wild bamboo; utilisation and cultivation of paper mulberry.
A review of forestry and related legislation, policy and practices and their impacts on SFM and on the MF Approach; and development of a work plan and a project proposal for developing Ngao MF were carried out. Key staff and stakeholders participated in various training programs, workshops, meetings and field visits to support the implementation of MF activities; Documentation of establishment and management of bamboo farm; Bamboo sticks and charcoal processing; Economic diversification on Rain Tree (Samanea saman) in Ngao MF; and Utilization and cultivation of Paper Mulberry (Brousonetia papyrifera) in Ngao MF.
Based on the ITTO guidelines, a national C&I with 7 criteria and 67 indicators was developed and adopted by the Royal Forest Department in February 2000. In July 2001, the Ngao MF Project Committee adopted the 7 national criteria as a framework for developing C&I for Ngao MF. An initial set of 61 indicators was gathered through field visits and informal meetings and refined, screened in consultation with stakeholders resulting to the development of 7 criteria and 59 indicators.
Lessons Learnt
Public awareness and participation have helped improve forest protection.
Partnership development takes time and effort, but is worth doing.
Livelihood improvement of local communities resulted in positive impacts on forest management.
Cooperation and coordination among stakeholders have proven to be relatively effective and needs to be strengthened
Dissemination and Development of MF
To further develop Mf it is deemed necessary to immediately establish a MF National Secretariat, whose function is to coordinate Mf development in Indonesia and undertake exchange of information and experiences with other MF through national, regional and international network.
The MF process makes it very possible to assist the development of community involvement in forest management (one of the conditions of NFP process). Even though the desire to implement MF is very high, it is still constrained by the low capacity especially in the regions. Technical assistance from donors is still very much needed to develop MF in Indonesia.
24 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
4
Model Forest is an activity prioritizing partnership of all stakeholders in achieving Sustainable Forest Management. The established partnership is not only at the local level, but also national and international levels. The partnership covers all stakeholders in the forestry sector, as well as other sectors related to forest.
In Indonesia the development of Model Forest is entering an exiting level marked by the launching of two model forests, namely: Berau Rumah Kita initiated by the Berau Forest Management Project (BFMP) in East Kalimantan, and Margowitan initiated by Perhutani located in four regencies in East Java. There are currently several processes directed to Model Forest, one of those is the Malinau Research Forest initiated by CIFOR.
Sustainable Forest Management which is yet to be achieved is a challenge for the development of Model Forest in Indonesia. Therefore, to encourage and develop Model Forest in Indonesia, more concrete efforts are required in the form of strategies and follow-ups of what have been achieved so far.
Strategies
• Disseminate and socialize MF concept
• Identify and develop group roles and functions
• Strengthen organizations and institutions
• Develop cooperation network
• Sustain activities and funding
Action Plan
Strategy 1. Disseminate and socialize MF concept
• Promote Model Forest concept at regional and national level, among others through a series of workshops, preparation and distribution of leaflets, magazines, posters regarding Model Forest.
• Promote locations of Model Forest Indonesia in various fora, regional, national as well as international.
• Publish results of activities of Model Forest Indonesia.
• Increase involvement of Model Forest Indonesia in meeting fora, particularly to achieve sustainable forest management.
• Conduct a Model Forest safari in locations potential to be developed as model forest.
Action Plan
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Strategy 3. Identify and develop group roles and functions
• Identify stakeholders involve in Model Forest.
• Establish agreement amongst stakeholders in Model Forest.
• Prepare instruments for transfer of knowledge in implementing Model Forest among each MF location.
Strategy 4. Consolidate organization and institution
• Prepare Model Forest Indonesia Secretariat functioning as centre of information, discussion facilitator, donor access, communication facilitator for parties involved in the development of Model Forest.
• Develop coordination within the organization of Model Forest Indonesia Secretariat according to assignments and responsibilities.
• Prepare and compile the Plan and Strategy for the development of Model Forest in Indonesia.
• Improve the management capacity of Model Forest in each MF location.
Strategy 4. Develop cooperation network
• Develop Model Forest locations according to bioregional coverage.
• Establish cooperation with donors such as ITTO, GEF World Bank, UNDP, ADB, EU, SIDA etc.
• Establish cooperation with International NGOs such as WWF, Conservation International, TNC, WCS and Tropenbos, and national NGOs such as Kehati, PILI (Pusat Informasi Lingkungan Indonesia, Indonesian Centre for Environmental Information) and others.
• Establish cooperation with trans-sectoral government bodies such as BAPPENAS, Department of Public Work, Department of Mining, Department of Interior and other Departments.
• Establish cooperation with local governments, provincial as well as regental.
• Establish cooperation with research institutions at national and international levels.
• Cooperate with international partnerships in achieving sustainable forest management, i.e. the Asian Forest Partnership.
• Establish cooperation with private parties dealing with natural resources management.
Strategy 5. Sustainability and funding
• Prepare action proposals for funding from donors, central government or regional government.
• Prepare locations for new Model Forest attractive to donors.
• Undertake institutional as well as personal approaches to donors to obtain trust fund.
• Improve coordination vertically and horizontally in mobilizing resources and funding
• Increase cooperation with donors to obtain financial support.
• Establish coordination with various stakeholders, especially to open access of funding and action traffics.
26 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
Appendix 1
Directives of the Minister of Forestry
at the Launching of Model Forest Indonesia
Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
1. Representatives of Friendly Countries and International Organizations
2. Officials of Echelon 1, Department of Forestry and State Own Enterprises
3. Officials of the Central and Regional Governments
4. Partners and Experts in Forestry
5. Ladies and gentlemen
Let us be grateful to God Almighty for His blessings which allow us to gather here today in good health.
I would like to make use of this opportunity to thank the Regional Governments of Margowitan (Madiun, Ponorogo, Ngawi and Magetan) and Perum Perhutani, and the Regental Government of Berau and PT Inhutani I for having established and developed the Model Forest in Indonesia. And surely also to the International Model Forest Network Secretariat (IMFNS) in Canada, for the technical and non-technical supports provided which enabled the development of the model forest concept in Indonesia. At this very good time, I would like to extend my gratitude to the partners, domestic as well as international, I can not mention them one by one, for their supports and contributions to the implementation of model forest and forestry development in Indonesia as well as in Asia. I would like to thank the organizing committee for undertaking this event. I consider this as important since it serves as a tool for us to develop ideas and initiatives in implementing the vision and mission of forestry development toward sustainable national development.
Appendices
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Ladies and gentlemen,
As a country located in the tropical region, with a forest area covering almost 70% of the Indonesian land, we realize the importance of managing the tropical natural forest for the benefit of us all. Forest management in Indonesia not only serves the Indonesian people, but also the global community in providing tangible as well as intangible benefits. As a life sustaining system, the existence and sustainability of tropical natural forest should be well managed to support the sustainable development in Indonesia. But in its progress, the natural forest in Indonesia, as well as in other parts of the world, endure heavy stress, which threatens the existence of the forest itself. Therefore, it is our obligation and responsibility to maintain and manage the left-over forest to optimize its functions. This includes increasing the quality of the utilization of economic and social functions of the forest without sacrificing the environment quality and ecological function of the forest.
Together we realize that the degree of forest degradation and deforestation in Indonesia in particular and in Asia in general has reached the critical level. The Forestry Sector in Indonesia also bears the negative impacts of the economic crisis of 1997/1998 up until today. In Indonesia the forest degradation has reached 1.6 million hectares per annum within a certain period of time. There is even a trend of increasing. This phenomenon could slowly make the natural forest disappear, including the protected forest area.
Ladies and gentlemen,
This concern encourages the Indonesian Government to prepare and develop serious steps and efforts to settle these very complex problems of the Forestry Sector. International commitments, such as the commitment of the Indonesian Government to the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), are a part of the development process of the Indonesian forestry policy. Without setting aside other forestry issues, the Ministry of Forestry has developed five Prioritized Policies requiring clear and immediate steps and actions, namely Eradication of Timber Thefts and Illegal Timber Trade, Revitalization of Forestry Sector particularly Forestry industry, Rehabilitation and Conservation of Forest and Land, Empowering the Economy of Communities Within and Around the Forest Area, and Consolidating the Forest Area.
Problems encountered in the implementation of the Five Prioritized Policies have been identified and being followed-up. It is hoped that satisfactory results of the implementation of the Forestry Prioritized Policy will have positive impact on forestry image and forest resource management in Indonesia, which will eventually increase the competitiveness of Indonesian forest products in the international market.
Dear audience,
Allow me to make use of this opportunity to share results of the contemplation and observation regarding the Department of Forestry’s prioritized policies.
First, Eradication of Timber Theft and Illegal Timber Trade. This is a very complex issue, hence in several international events the Government always bring forth this issue and encourage good international cooperation to fight practices of timber theft which is detrimental for every party. Through forum such as Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG) as the follow-up of the Bali Declaration 2001 and the forum of Asia Forest Partnership (AFP), and several bilateral cooperation between the Indonesian Government and the European Union and the United Kingdom and various other countries, it is hoped that the issue can be significantly overcome.
28 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
The second priority is Revitalization of Forestry Sector, particularly Forestry Industry. Problems encountered in the implementation of sustainable forest management in production forests are also complex. This is shown by the existing gap between the supply of timber raw material and set capacity of timber industry (supply and demand of timber is not balanced), which also causing rapid growth in timber theft and other related activities detrimental to all parties. Therefore, forest quality and performance of timber industry are disturbed. The follow up actions are among others establishing cooperation between related institutions (Ministry of Forestry and Ministry of Trade and Industry) by having a joint decree, and IBRA in applying comprehensive evaluation to concessionaires of forest and forestry industry and its raw material resources, including evaluation of the machinery technology, work force and its marketing and company loans. The Government has also applied a policy of obligatory evaluation of companies undertaken by independent bodies.
The third is Rehabilitation and Conservation of Forest and Land. Development of plantation forest and rehabilitation are carried out to overcome the problem of supply-demand of timber. In this policy, the development of plantation forest is carried out on bare land only, and destructed forest land. Conversion of natural forest into plantation forest is already stopped. To support the implementation of this policy, the Government provides information on forest closure through most current Landsat image interpretation maps. Related to conservation activities, several activities are also undertaken, in situ as well as ex situ conservation. The appointment of several new National Parks as areas of nature conservation and nature reserve representing various types of different ecosystem shows the commitment of the Government to keep on managing fragile forest areas. Parallel to those, environment services and ecotourism activities are also developed.
The fourth prioritized policy is Empowerment of the Economy of Communities living within and around the forest area. This prioritized activity is implemented within the framework of social forestry, and as part of the decentralization process of the forestry sector. Several programs relevant to community development are established. Various approaches, which have been studied and appropriated with local conditions show positive impacts, especially in capacity building of local institutions such as social forestry and collaborative forest management in several regencies.
The fifth is Consolidating Forest Areas. In preparing the pre-conditions, the appointment of forest area is very important. To date the legal status of forest area as base of land allocation is not fully firm. Currently appointments of forest areas in 27 provinces have been carried out. The setting-up of forest boundaries has been done for 216,346.78 km long, including forest cover boundary (165,293.62 km) and function boundary (51,053.16 km). This prioritized policy is implemented to realize legality and status of the forest area and secure forest according to its functions (conservation, protected, and production). Securing a forest area is supportive to stable forest management to achieve sustainable forest.
Within the framework of those five prioritized policies, serious attention is also given to the development of the human resources. The success of the forestry development program will be more guaranteed if managed by professional and qualified hands. Therefore, the capacity building program, through competence based education as well as training, is synergistically implemented.
Ladies and gentlemen,
I would like to invite you all once more to look at problems we currently encounter in the globalization era. New issues of the 21st century requiring our attention having big impact on the environment in national, regional and international scale are namely:
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1. Globalization process in trade, production and technology, should be related to its positive impacts for the environment. The by-product of globalization is decentralization problem.
2. Social conflicts which bring serious environment destruction.
3. Poverty and inequity become enforcers of serious environment destruction too.
4. Sectoral sustainability needs to be developed in industry, mining and services beside agriculture and forestry.
5. Science and technology can accelerate development in developing countries to avoid the growth of inequity gap between developed and developing countries becoming bigger and destroying the environment.
Globalization has presented chances and challenges to sustainable development. We realize that globalization and interdependency present new opportunities for trade, investment and capital flows and technological progress, including information technology, for economic growth, development and improvement of living standard all over the world. Nevertheless at the same time, there are serious challenges to be faced, namely problems of security, poverty, abandonment and imbalance in the society.
Globalization should include all parties and be fair. It is deemed necessary that policies and steps taken in the implementation of development in various levels are formulated and applied participatively.
Ladies and gentlemen,
In line with all those mentioned, the birth of the spirit of global partnership towards sustainable development brought forth at the Earth Summit Conference in Rio de Janeiro 1992 reflects the international attention towards the destruction of forest ecosystem.
In implementing the international commitment for sustainable development, there exists a reflection of the obligation to meet the principles of sustainability not only from the social economic aspect but also from the environment aspect. Besides, other principles such as holistic, openness, and participative and partnership within the National Forest Program (NFP) to follow-up Indonesia’s international commitment to achieve sustainable forest management is also developed by the Department of Forestry.
Considering that forest resources are natural resources which management impacts are not limited by countries only, but also by global scope, and not only endured by the present generation but the next as well, I would like to invite all parties concerned to always think holistically and comprehensively in developing and implementing forestry development according to local conditions. I would like to use this opportunity also to express that sustainable forest management is not only the responsibility of the Department of Forestry, but the responsibility of all parties, be it the Central Government, the Local Government, NGOs and people in general.
Ladies and gentlemen,
Through the forum of Model Forest Indonesia presently established in Berau, East Kalimantan, and Margowitan, East Java, I hope that there will be consensus in developing the program and action plans as well as supports and financial management.
I also hope that there will be support and attention from all parties, partners and forestry observers, to cooperate in developing the model forest concept as one of the tools towards sustainable forest management in each of your work area and other countries in line with each policy and priority.
30 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
Ladies and gentlemen,
I welcome the expression of concern from various parties towards the destruction of forest resources and their ecosystems which keep on increasing from time to time. I hope that this concern is also accompanied by commitment and factual joint steps in overcoming bigger problems and destruction of forest and finding better solutions.
Those are several points I would like to present you in this good opportunity. I hope that this model forest forum will bring concrete steps to support the achievement of sustainable forest management towards sustainable development ensuring harmony between social, economic and environment aspects.
Lastly, I would like to congratulate and once more thank and honor the International Model Forest Network Secretariat (IMFNS) and FAO, the local government of Margowitan and Berau Regency and Perum Perhutani and PT Inhutani I, for all technical as well as non-technical supports to establish this forum. May God Almight bless your good intention.
Billahi taufik wal hidayah, wassalamu’alaikum warahma-tullahi wabarakatuh.
Minister of Foresty
MS Kaban
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Keynote Speech of the Head of Forestry Planning Agency at the Launching of Model Forest Indonesia
Assalamu’alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh
1. Representatives of Friendly Countries and International Institutions
2. Echelon I Officials of the Department of Forestry and State Owned Enterprises and Staffs
3. Officials of Central and Regional Governments
4. Partners and Experts in forestry
5. Ladies and gentlemen.
Let us give thanks to God Almighty for allowing us to gather here today in good health.
I would like to make use of this opportunity to extend my thanks and gratitudes to the local governments of Margowitan and Berau, Perum Perhutani and PT Inhutani, who have jointly developed model forest in Indonesia. I would also like to thank the International Model Forest Network Secretariat (IMFNS) for its support in developing model forest in Indonesia. My gratitude is also extended to all partners, domestic as well as international, for their contributions to this forum. To the organizing committee, I thank you for what have been done to conduct this event. I consider this event as an important opportunity to share the development vision and mission of forestry in achieving sustainable forest management.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
As a country situated in the tropics with large forest and marine coverage, Indonesia is well known as a country rich in biodiversity, the second richest after Brazil. Indonesia covers only approximately 1.3% of the whole world’s area, but globally compared, Indonesia’s diversity in flora and fauna is approximately 10% of the total flowering plant species, 12% of the mammal species, 16% of reptiles and amphibians, and 17% of birds and 25% of fish species of the world. This riches in biodiversity require a big responsibility in management, since bio diversity and environment issues are not only included in the national agenda, but also in the international agenda.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
The birth of the spirit of global partnership towards sustainable development declared at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 reflects the attention of the international community towards the destruction of forest ecosystems. Since then several international agreements are declared including the convention of climatic change, diversity and convention of desertification. The importance of sustainable management of the natural resources is also decreed in the State Guidelines 2000-2004 (TAP MPR-RI No. IV/MPR/1999) regarding Natural Resources and Environment.
Appendix 2
Remarks of Head of Forestry Planning Agency
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In implementing the international commitment for sustainable development, it is obligatory to apply the sustainability principles not only from the social economic aspect but also from the environment aspect. Therefore, I would like to invite all parties concerned to think globally and act according to local conditions. I would like to use this opportunity to state that sustainable forest management is not the responsibility of the Department of Forestry only, but also of all parties , be it the central government and local government as well as NGOs and the people in general.
The rate of forest destruction is quite high in the developing countries where the forestry sector serves as support and resource of foreign exchange in development. Indonesia is also a country with a high rate of deforestation and forest degradation. One of the main reasons is the distorting operational policy and the weak control and law enforcement. Therefore, to handle forest destruction requires the cooperation of all parties, domestic and international as well.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Specifically, according to Law 41 regarding Forestry, directives of forest development are:
1. It is mandatory that forest should be maintained and managed honourably for the useful services of the life and livelihood of the Indonesian people and state;
2. Considering its important roles, forest and all its natural riches belongs to the state. This state ownership gives the state the mandate to direct and maintain all related to forest, forest areas, forest products and undertake all legal actions regarding forest.
3. Forest development is continuously increased and directed towards the greatest part of the fair and sustainable welfare of the people of present as well as future generations as a whole, by ensuring the existence and sustainability of forest functions, considering the functional sustainability and environmental balance, sustainable development, economic importance and local culture as well as local settings, and
4. The implementation of forest development is based upon benefit and sustainability, people oriented, justice, togetherness, openness, and integrity, applied through planning, management, research, development, education and training, and forestry extension and control.
While the objectives of forest development are:
1. To improve the quality and productivity of forest resources;
2. To decrease the rate of degradation of forest resources;
3. To ensure the sustainability of forest resources; and
4. To implement a just and transparent forest management system beneficial for the welfare of the present and future generations.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
In implementing the forest development, the Department of Forestry follows the forestry macro policy, which is:
1. Forest development is implemented to ensure the achievement of sustainable forest management;
2. Forest development is implemented in a well-planned, rational, optimal and responsible manner based upon the principles of balance, justice and harmony in life;
3. Forest development is implemented to increase the role of all parties in maintaining the functions of forest resources;
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4. The role of forest development in supporting the economic growth and stability and healthy social life of the people, is undertaken through utilizing forest resources within the limitation of ecosystem sustainability of related forests.
5. Forest rehabilitation and conservation are priorities in restoring the natural resources conditions for long term benefit.
To implement the policy, up to the end of 2004, five prioritized policies of the Department of Forestry have been holistically and gradually applied, namely:
1. Eradication of timber theft and illegal timber trade.
2. Revitalization of forestry sector, particularly the forestry industry, aimed at increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of forest resources management.
3. Rehabilitation and conservation of forest and land, aimed at rehabilitating destructed forest and land and conserving existing forest.
4. Empowering the economy of the communities living within and around the forest area to improve the people’s welfare.
5. Consolidation of forest areas as base of solid area management in every forestry entrepreneurship.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
Law No 41, 1999, stated that the role of the people is regulated specially in Chapter X, Section 68 Article (1) stating that the people have the right to enjoy the quality of environment provided by forest. Article (2) also states that the people has the right to;(a) utilize the forest and forest products, (b) know the forest and forest resources utilization plan, and forestry information, (c) give information, suggestions and considerations in forest development, and (d) undertake control measures towards implementation of forest development directly as well as indirectly.
PP 25, 2000 serves as clarification of Law No. 22, 1999. Hence the task and authority of implementing forest resource management are changed. Several authorities in forest resource management, previously with the central government, is currently with the local government. Considering the importance of the roles and benefits of the related forest resources, the management should be implemented by all actors be it at the central as well as the local levels, in accordance with the standards and criteria towards sustainable forest management.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
As a response to those problems and the weak coordination amongst various parties, one of the steps chosen is to develop a multi-party forum which activities are undertaken through a number of dialogues, seminars, workshops and planning. It is hoped that this step will encourage the establishment of communication spaces of the parties, namely Governments, Legislative Agencies, NGOs, the common people and universities, to review the solutions of various local forestry issues. At present a number of dialogues and discussions have resulted in several consensus, commitments and agreements and follow-up action plans jointly prepared within the framework of developing several programs for the parties.
As an approach, the currently developed multi-party process is important to be jointly reflected within the framework of evaluating the effectiveness and developing the approaching efforts through a better and more conducive process in responding to the challenges of future development of forestry.
34 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
In particular, the Department of Forestry has also developed the National Forestry
Program (NFP) within the framework of follow-up actions of Indonesia’s international
commitments for sustainable forest management.
Furthermore, the National Forest Program is basically directed to ensure the
implementation of conservation, management, and development of sustainable forestry
to meet the local, national as well as international needs and claims for the benefits of
the present and future generations.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
In the present social political conditions, which enable people to be more aware of the
importance of transparency, equity, and justice, the multi-party processes involving
the parties is an approach to be undertaken to achieve a sustainable forest resource
management.
Participatory process can also be applied if the knowledge gap amongst stakeholders
can be bridged. The same goes for wisdom to acknowledge the existence and benefits
of local indigenous ecological knowledge is an important factor to encourage people’s
partnership in the multi-party program.
Ladies and Gentlemen,
I heartily welcome the establishment of a multi-party forum such as model forest, which
concept is already developed in Indonesia during the last five years. The concept of
model forest is hoped to be able to serve as a tool for us in responding to the concern
of several parties regarding the destruction of forest resources and their ecosystems,
which is increasing continuously. I sincerely hope that this concern also includes joint
efforts in eradicating further destructions and finding solutions.
Those are a number of points I would like to present at this launching of model forest
event. I do hope that through this forum a valuable lesson can be learned for the
development of forestry in Indonesia towards a sustainable forest management.
Finally, I would like to thank all parties concerned for this event. May God Almighty bless
your good intention.
Billahi taufik wal hidayah, wassalamu’alaikum warahma-tullahi wabarakatuh.
Head of Agency
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Appendix 3
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Appendix 4
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Appendix 5
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Appendix 6
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Appendix 7
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Appendix 8
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Appendix 9
Agenda
AGENDA
LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
GEDUNG SONOKELING – MANGGALA WANABAKTI
JL. GATOT SUBROTO – JAKARTA
THURSDAY, 2 DECEMBER 2004
HOURS
ACTIVITIES
PERSON IN CHARGE
11:30 – 13:00
Registration + lunch
13:00 – 13:20
Opening Address
DG Planning:
Dr. Boen Purnama
13:20 – 13:40
Policy of Social Forestry in Indo
SAM II: Dr. Yetty Rusli
13:40 – 14:00
International Model Forest Network
IMFNS: Brian Bonnel
14:00 – 14:20
Model Forest: FAO
FAO: Patrick Durst
14:20 – 14:40
Model Forest in Indonesia
Indonesian MF Coordinator:
Dr. Silver Hutabarat
14:40 – 15:00
Model Forest in Berau – Kaltim
Dr.Achmad Delmy
15:00 – 15:20
Model Forest in Margowitan – Jatim
John Novarly
15:20 – 15:50
Coffee break
15:50 – 16:20
Video Show Model Forest
Perhutani
16:20– 17:20
Discussion
Moderator
(Dr. Tony Suhartono)
17:20 – 17:40
Launching of Indonesian Model Forest (Berau dan Margowitan)
HE Minister of Forestry:
MS. Kaban, SE, MSi
17:40- end
Closing
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Appendix 10
List of invitees
Attachment to the letter of the Head of Forestry Planning Agency
Number : UN 724/VII-REN/2004
Date : November 29, 2004
LIST OF INVITEES
DEPARTMENT OF FORESTRY
1. Minister of Forestry
2. Secretary General of the Department of Forestry
3. Inspector General of the Department of Forestry
4. Head of the Forestry Research and Development Agency
5. Head of the Forestry Planning Agency
6. Director General of Land Rehabilitation and Social Forestry
7. Director General of Forestry Production
8. Director General of Forest Protection and Nature Conservation
9. Ministerial Staff II of Forestry Development Strategy and Technology
10. Ministerial Staff IV of Forestry Partnership
11. Secretary of the Forestry Planning Agency
12. Secretary of the Directorate General of BPK
13. Secretary of the Directorate General of RLPS
14. Director of Natural Forest Development, Ditjen BPK
15. Director General of Social Forestry, Ditjen RLPS
16. Head of KLN and Investment Bureau
17. Head of Forestry Information Centre
18. Head of Forestry Planning Centre
19. Head of Forestry Planning Control Centre Regional I
20. Head of Forestry Planning Control Centre Regional II
21. Head of Forestry Planning Control Centre Regional III
22. Head of Forestry Planning Control Centre Regional IV
23. Head of Technical Cooperation Division, Secretariat General Department of Forestry
24. Head of Multilateral Cooperation Division, KLN and Investment Bureau
25. Head of the Forestry General Planning Division
26. Head of the Division of Forestry Plan Implementation Evaluation
27. Head of the Division of Evaluation and reporting, Bureau of Planning and Finance
28. Head of Program and Budget, Forestry Research and Development Agency
29. Head of the Sub-Division of PBB Organization, KLN and Investment Bureau
30. Head of Land Conservation Section, Directorate of watershed Management and Land Rehabilitation
31. Head of the Sub-Division of Loan Projects Cooperation, KLN and Investment Bureau
32. Head of the Sub-Division of Data and Information, Forestry Research and Development Agency
33. Head of the Sub-Division of Long Term Planning, Forestry Planning Agency
86 PROCEEDINGS LAUNCHING OF MODEL FOREST INDONESIA
LOCAL GOVERNMENTS
34. Regent of Madiun
35. Regent of Ponorogo
36. Regent of Ngawi
37. Regent of Magetan
38. Head of Madiun Forestry Service
39. Head of Ponorogo Forestry Service
40. Head of Ngawi Forestry Service
41. Head of Magetan Forestry Service
STATE OWNED COMPANY (PERUM PERHUTANI and INHUTANI)
42. Director in Chief of Perum Perhutani
43. Division Head of Enterprise Development Planning, Perum Perhutani Jakarta
44. Division Head of Forest resources Development, Perhutani Jakarta
45. Head of Perum Perhutani Unit II, East Java (Surabaya)
46. Head of Center for Human Resources Training and Development,
Madiun (Ir. Andi Suratman)
47. Ir. John Novarly, M.For. Sc., Perhutani Madiun
48. Administrator/KKPH Madiun – Madiun
49. Administrator/KKPH Ngawi – Ngawi
50. Administrator/KKPH Lawu ds – Madiun
51. Administrator/KKPH Saradan – Madiun
52. Director in Chief of PT Inhutani I, Jakarta
53. Director of Development PT Inhutani I, Jakarta
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS
54. BAPPENAS (Director of Division of Forestry and Natural Resources)
55. Department of Foreign Affairs (Director of Economic and Environment Development, Mr. Djauhari Oratmangun)
56. Department of Internal Affairs (Direcor of Regional Government Affairs, Directorat General of regional Autonomy, Dr. I Made Suwardi)
57. Coordinating Ministry of Economic Affairs (Deputy Assistant of Utilization of Natural and Forestry Resources, Mr. Johnson Tampubolon)
UNIVERSITIES
58. Dean of Faculty of Forestry, UGM, Yogyakarta
59. Dean of Faculty of Forestry, IPB, Bogor
FRIENDLY COUNTRIES AND INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
60. Embassy of Canada, Jakarta (Angela Keller-Herzog, First Secretary)
61. Canadian International Development Agency-CIDA, Jakarta (Programme Officer)
62. European Union Jakarta (Program Advisor Natural Resources, Mr. Giovanni Seritella)
63. European Union Jakarta (Program Manager Rural Development & Forestry, Mr. Vernon Copeland)
64. EU Forest Liaison Bureau (Mr. Timothy Nolan, Director)
65. EU-SCKPFP Jakarta (Co-Leaders)
66. EU-ILRC Jakarta (Team Leader)
67. EC UNDP SGP for Operation to Promote Tropical Forests (Dr. Agustinus Taufik, National Coordinator)
68. International Model Forest Network Secretariat Canada (Mr.Brian Bonnel, Senior Programme Officer, Asia)
69. International Development Research Centre-IDRC, Singapore (Stephen McGurk, Regional Director for Southeast And East Asia)
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70. International Development Research Centre-IDRC, Singapore (Hein Malle,
Senior Programme Specialist, Community Based Natural Resource for Southeast and East Asian)
71. FAO Representative Jakarta (Mr. Benni Sormin)
72. FAO Bangkok (Dr. Patrick Durst)
73. MFP-Dephut-DFID (Co-Directors: Mr. Mike Harrison, Mr. Sutaryo)
74. MFP-Dephut-DFID (Mr. Yuyu Rahayu, Secondee Bidang CBFM)
75. MFP-Dephut-DFID (Ir. Agus Justianto, MSC., Secondee Bidang Peningkatan Kapasitas Nasional untuk Proses Internasional)
76. JICA (Mr. Hiroshi Nakata, Team Leader)
77. SMCP-GTZ (Mr. Jozsef Micski, Team Leader)
78. SMCP-GTZ (National Secondee, Dr. Aulia Aruan)
79. CIFOR (Dr. David Kaimowitz, Director General)
80. CIFOR (Malinau Dr. Petrus Gunarso)
81. ITTO (Indonesian Resident Adviser)
82. GEF Small Grants Programme (Avi Mahaningtyas, National Coordinator)
NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION
83. WALHI, Director
84. KEHATI, Director
85. WWF, Director
86. CI, Executive Director
87. FWI, Executive Director
88. TELAPAK, Executive Director
89. GREENOMICS, Executive Director
90. WARSI, Executive Director
91. ARUPA Yogyakarta, Executive Director
BERAU MODEL FOREST
92. Regent of Berau (Drs. Masdjuni)
93. Head of Berau Forestry Service (Dr. Achmad Delmy, Chairman of Stakeholders Representative Board/SRB)
94. Head of Berau Plantation Service (Ir. Suparno Kashim, Secretary of SRB)
95. Head of Forum Masyarakat Peduli Hutan Berau, East Kalimantan (Askila Ludjuk, Stakeholder)
96. PT HLL (IUPHH) (Ir. Surianto Jakaria, Head of Organization Board)
97. Cindy Jacqueline (Manager, Ex BFBP)
PRIVATE SECTORS AND ASSOCIATIONS
98. APHI, Chairman
99. ISWA, Chairman
100. BRIK, Chairman
101. APKINDO, Chairman
102. Barito Pacific Timber Group, Director in Chief
103. Jayanti Group, Director in Chief
104. Sumalindo Lestari Jaya Group, Director in Chief
105. PT ITCI, Director in Chief
106. PT Intraca Wood, Director in Chief
107. PT Roda Mas Group, Director in Chief
9789792446197>ISBN 979-24-4619-2